Sunday, 31 December 2017

American Projectiles and Explosives - Army Developmental Types

American Projectiles and Explosives

Army Developmental Rockets

2.36-inch Smoke T-27E1

No picture available

Overall length: 16.1 inches
Total weight: 3.4 pounds
Head length: 4.5 inches
H.C. smoke charge: 1 pound

General: This rocket is generally similar to the other smoke rockets in this series, differing mainly in its payload.  It also differs in that it has a circle of smoke ports in the base of the head, which allows the H.C. smoke to be blown out of the head on impact.  Pressure of the H.C. smoke blows out the port covers after the base fuze sets off the H.C. gas.  The H.C. smoke will issue for one minute after impact.

2.36-inch Incendiary T3

No picture available

Overall length: 17.7 inches
Total weight: 3.4 pounds
Head length: 4.1 inches
Thermite filler: 1.1 pounds

General: The T31 is like the other 2.36-inch chemical load rockets, using the same motor and fuzing as the M10.  It has, however, a mmuch shorter head.  On impact, it ignites and burns, producing extreme heat.  It is currently issued for practice only.

4.5-inch H.E. S.S. T22 and Practice T46

No picture available

General: These rockets have the heavier shell of the M8A2 and M9A2.  Also, the motor tube is further strengthened and the assembly of the fins slightly changed.  The igniter is loaded in a tube attached to the trap, extending the length of the propellant charge.  Its safe temperature range: -20 to +120 degrees Fahrenheit.

3.5-inch A/T T80 and Practice T85

Overall length: 26.3 inches
Weight of head: 5.11 pounds
65/35 Cyclotal charge: 1.82 pounds
Length of motor: 15.6 inches

Fuzing: T160E1

General: This design is mainly a larger type of the 2.36-inch A/T model, with improvements.  It has the shaped-charge explosive for penetration.  It also has a more efficient propellant and an all-ways-action fuze.  Performance tests are still being conducted.  It is the largest of the shoulder-fired rockets.

Propellant: There are 12 sticks of powder five inches long and 0.375 inches in diameter; total weight, 160 grams.  The igniter is conventional.

4.5-inch H.E. A.R. T83 and Practice T87

Overall length: 75.88 inches
Total weight: 98 pounds
Head length: 16.68 inches
Weight of charge: 8.8 pounds
Range: 1,500 yards

Fuzing: Mk 149

General: This is one of the "fixed-fin" type of 4.5-inch rockets, the other being the S.A.P. round.  It is a high-velocity rocket, fired from the zero-length launchers.

Head: The high-explosive head T2002 is thin-walled and has an adapter and fuze-seat liner for the Nose Fuze Mk 149.  An Auxiliary Booster Mk 3 Mod 1 is shipped in the fuze seat, protected by a chipboard disc and a shipping plug.

Motor: The T2000 motor is connected to the head by a steel coupling, threaded internally.  The motor tube is constricted at the rear to form the nozzle.  Lug bands are one button-type band and one zero-length band, 45.53 inches and 10.25 inches respectively, from the base of the rocket.

Tail: The T2000 tail assembly, four flat fins mounted radially on a metal sleeve, is secured to the nozzle by a threaded retainer coupling.

Propellant: Twelve single-perforated sticks of powder having 7/16-inches inside diameter and 1.22 inches outside diameter, 20.6 inches long, are mounted in two banks of six each on the bars of a cage-like support.

Igniter: An electric squib and 2 and 3/4 ounces of black powder are assembled in a plastic tube 6 and 3/4 inches long and one inch in diameter.   This tube is suspended from the end of the propellant in the center of the tube.  The ignition wires pass to the rear through a plastic closing cap cemented in the throat of the nozzle.  They terminate in a phone-type plug.  About two feet of igniter cable are held in the flare of the nozzle by a fiber cap cemented in place.

Practice Round: The T87 - T2003 head and T2000 motor - is like the T83 except for the live fuze and explosives, for which inert substitutes are provided.

4.5-inch S.A.P. A.R. T78 and Practice T86

No picture available

Overall length: 70.89 inches
Total weight: 98 pounds
Head length: 15 inches
Weight of charge: 2.8 pounds
Range: 1,500 yards

Fuzing: T156

General: This is another "fixed-fin" 4.5-inch rocket.  A high-velocity aircraft rocket, it is fired from the zero-length launchers.

Head: This S.A.P. Head T2000 is of heavy-walled construction and threaded at the base to receive the motor tube.

Motor: This round uses the same motor and fin assembly as are found on the T83 round.  It also uses the same propellant and igniter.  The Practice Round T86, T2001 Head, is inert fuzed and loaded.

4.5-inch H.E. S.S. T160 and Practice T161

Overall length (w/o fuze): 30.07 inches
TNT charge: 6 pounds

Fuzing: M81 or M402 (V.T.)

General: Because of its more efficient propellant, this round is expected to be a more powerful, longer-range rocket.  Except for the propellant, it is of conventional Army design.

Propellant: Seven cylindrical powder sticks, 13.5 inches long and 1.35 inches in diameter, furnish the power.  The grid type of support is used instead of the conventional trap, and the igniter is housed against the motor wall, instead of being placed in the center.  Safe temperature limits for this round are from -20 to +120 degrees Fahrenheit.

7.2-inch H.E. T24

See Navy 7.2-inch chemical warfare rocket

7.2-inch D.R. T37 and T88

See Navy 7.2-inch demolition rocket

8-inch D.R. T25

No picture available

Overall length: 60.25 inches
Total weight: 137 pounds
Head length: 27.5 inches

Filler: TNT or 50/50 Amatol
Weight of filler: 58 pounds
Range: 550 yards

Fuzing: T20

General: This round is a modified 100-pound G.P. bomb fastened to a 4.5-inch rocket motor.

Construction: Suspension lugs and base plug are removed from the standard 100-pound bomb, and a motor adapter substituted for the base plug.  The motor is the standard type for the 4.5-inch Army folding-fin type of rocket, modified to take the special box-type fin.  The fuze seat in the bomb is modified to receive the Point Detonating Fuze T20.

Launcher: The metal crate in which the round is shipped serves as an expendable launcher.

H.E. S.S. 21-cm T36 and Practice T45

Overall length: 48.86 inches
Total weight: 91.75 pounds

Fuzing: M51 (M81)

General: This round is a copy of the German rocket of the same type.  At present, performance tests are being conducted by the Army Ordnance Department.  It is of conventional structure, with the artillery-type fuze.

Next Time: Rocket Bodies, and Navy Rockets (Part 1)

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