Monday, 24 April 2017

German Projectiles - Introduction and Colour and Markings System







German Projectiles





Introduction to German Artillery Projectiles



Classes of German Artillery Ammunition



Class #1: (Fixed Ammunition) Ammunition, the complete round of which, can be loaded into the weapon in one operation.  The cartridge case, containing a primer and propelling charge is permanently crimped to the projectile.



Class #2: Ammunition, the complete round of which, is loaded in two operations.  The cartridge case, containing a primer and a propellant charge is not crimped to the projectile.  The propelling charge is in bags and the charge can be varied at the point of firing.  The projectile is packed and shipped separately, and the cartridge case and propellant are packed as one unit.


The Germans employ cartridge cases in all their artillery ammunition.  The cases are employed for the main purpose of preventing the escape of gas to the rear.




 
Nomenclature

The Germans designate a round of artillery ammunition by the Caliber, Type of Ammunition, (Model No. of the round), Type of Weapon fired from, and (Model No. of the Weapon.)

The caliber of German Artillery Ammunition is measured in centimeters.  The Germans refer to calibers approximately; for instance, the 10.5cm gun is always known as the "s 10cm K.18", (Heavy 10cm Model No.18)

In naming the various types of projectiles, the Germans employ the word, "Granate", (abbreviated "gr." or "Gr.").  "Granate" is used as a base word for all the various types of rounds.  By adding a prefix and/or a suffix to the word, the exact nature of the projectile is indicated.



Prefix added to the word "Granate"


(In order to differentiate between the various types of Armor Piercing Rounds, numbers are added after the word Pzgr.)

Panzergranate 39 -- Pzgr. 39 -- APCBCHE (Armor Piercing Cap, Ballistic Cap [windshield] High Explosive)

Panzergranate 40 -- Pzgr. 40 -- A.P. Shot with a tungsten carbide core

Panzergranate 41 -- Pzgr. 41 -- A.P. Shot with a tungsten carbide core for tapered bore gun (Gerlich gun)

Sprenggranate 41 -- Sprgr. 41 -- H.E. Shell for a tapered bore gun



Suffix added after "Granate"





For the most part the Germans do not give Model Numbers to their artillery ammunition.  In several of the old rounds Model Numbers are indicated.  The numbers used are the lat two of the year in which the round was made standard.  These are only used in the nomenclature when there is more than one model of any specific type.  In the case of the "Pzgr." (Armor Piercing) rounds,  the numbers appearing after the word merely indicates the type of Armor Piercing round and are not Model Numbers.


Rot. or L'spur. (Leuchtspur) included int he designation indicates tracer.

This nomenclature is followed by the word "Patronen" abbreviated Patr., meaning cartridge.  This is the German way of indicating a complete round.  It is similar to the British nomenclature, in that the British use the word "cartridge" to designate all their complete rounds.

The Germans include the name of the type of the weapon in designating their ammunition.  This nomenclature is given in the form of an abbreviation.



 
In some instances a letter in parenthesis is added to the nomenclature after the word indicating the type of projectile.  These letters are used to indicate material of foreign origin.  The following are some of the letters used for this purpose.

(t) Czech
(f) French
(p) Polish
(r) Russian
(o) Austrian

In some cases the following may be included in the nomenclature:

German --- English
              NA --- New Pattern
        umg --- Modified
     St --- Steel


The following details of stencilling on projectiles are arranged in the sequence in which the markings are normally found commencing at the nose of the projectile.

Z.F.Hbgr - (In black) On the windshield of an H.E.B.C. shell indicates the use of a nose fuze under the windshield

R or Mr - (In black near the tip) Indicates the presence of a smoke box.

Arabic numerals - (In black on the head of the shell just below the fuze hole, or on the body of the shell), indicates the type of H.E. filler.  The more common of these are given below.






The following are some examples of German ammunition nomenclature.

4.7cm Sprgr. Patr. Pak (t) - 47mm H.E. Shell for the A.T. gun of Czech make.

3.7cm Pzgr. Patr. 40 Pak - 37mm A.P. Shot - Tungsten Carbide core for the A.T. gun.

7.62cm Pzgr. Patr. 40 Pak. 36 (r) - 76.2mm (3") A.P. Shot - Tungsten Carbide core for the A.T. gun 36 (Russian design).

8.8cm Sprgr. Patr. Flak 36 - 88mm H.E. Shell for the Anti-Aircraft gun 36.




Color of the Projectile

 
Projectiles of the latter type are sometimes painted white.  This color appears to be used for projectiles in the experimental stage supplied for trial by the Army in the field.

Band marking is not common use except for a red band above the rotating band in some shells, indicating a tracer, and a yellow band for the 3.7cm aluminum colored H.E. tracer shell.

The place and date of the filling of the projectile, followed by a lot number in black, is on the shoulder of the projectile in the form of an abbreviation.

The Weight Zone of the projectile is indicated by Roman numerals, black in color near the bourrelet.

In the following instances the type of shell, and to some extend the nature of the filling, is indicated by 2.4" letters stencilled at two positions round the shell midway between the rotating band and bourrelet.




The place and date of assembly, followed by a lot number, are stencilled in 4" black or red lettering above the rotating band, e.g., "Lr 4.640L."



Stamping on the Projectile


The following are stamped on the ogive in the order in which they appear.

1.  Acceptace test number
2.  Delivery number, firm and year of manufacture
3.  Firm's proof mark


The following appear on the body of the projectile:

1. An acceptance stamp, water pressure test and an acceptance stamp, second test.
2. Acceptance stamp (Hardness).
3. Shell model number.
4. Delivery number, firm, year of manufacture, acceptance stamp of release.


The following appear on the base:
1. Delivery number, firm, year of manufacture.
2. Projectile model number.
3. Acceptance stamp for fitted base.
4. Acceptance stamp.




Identification of the Fixed Cartridge Case and Charges

  


  
Stencilling on side of Case


The following details are arranged in the sequence in which the markings are normally found between the approximate center of the case and flange at the base;

1. The caliber, types and model numbers of the weapons for which the round is suitable are stencilled in the form: 7.5cm KWK 40 (7.5cm, tank gun Model 40).  Where a round is suitable for more than one equipment, the designation of the equipment is stencilled in sequence with the letter "u" signifying "and" as a conjunction.

2. The weight of the propellant charge in grams is stencilled int he form of numerals, followed by the letter "g" below the nomenclature of the ammunition. (e.g. "164g")

3. The nature, shape and size of the propellant charge are stencilled below the marking indicating the charge weight.

The following markings are used to indicate the nature of the propellant




  [Note: My copy is either missing #4 and #5, or they don't exist.]



6.  The red stencilling used to indicate propellant charges of a reduced weight for hot climates may be found near the base of the case, just above the flange, or higher up the side of the case, above the other stencilling.  The marking used:  Tp ---- 25* C.  indicates that the normal or standard charge temperature on which the weight of the charge is based is 25 degrees Celsius (77 degrees Fahrenheit).  The German standard charge temperature for normal European temperatures is 10 degrees Celsius. (50 degrees Fahrenheit)

 7. In some instances cases are stencilled:  "Abgebr Ldg" in red.  This marking is found near the base (corresponding to the position of the Tp - 25* C. marking) and probably refers to the propellant charges of low stability which are to be give priority in expenditure.


Stencilling on the base of Fixed Cartridge Cases


Type of the projectile is stencilled in white or black to the left above the primer hole.

In some instances the Roman numerals indicating the weight classification of the projectile are stencilled in white to the right below the primer hole.


Stampings on the base of Fixed Cartridge Cases


Model number of case.
St. - after model number of case -- indicates a steel case.
Model, Cal. and type of weapon.
Manufacturer's Initial.
Delivery number.
Year of manufacture.


Markings on Cartridge Bags in Fixed Rounds


The markings are the same as those stencilled on the side of the case except that the caliber, type and model number of the equipment are not included.


Markings on Semi-Fixed Cartridge Cases


A cardboard or leatherboard cup is used to close the mouth of the cartridge case in a round where the cartridge case is packed separately.

A label, found on the closing cup, contains information corresponding to the stencilling on the side of the fixed cartridge case.  The information is as follows:

Details of the weapon.
Charge weight.
Kind.
Type (size and shape of the charge.)
Place and date of manufacture of propellant.
Place and date of filling.
Indication of propellant charges for hot climates.


Cases with steel covers for packing and transport, which are removed before loading, have neither labels nor stencilling relating to the propellant charge except the stencilling "Tp.25* C." imprinted on the base where applicable.  Details of the propellant are available, however, from the stencilling on the charge bags.

Stamping ont he base of the case is the same as that on the base of a fixed round, except that the caliber of the equipment is sometimes omitted.


Markins on the Cartridge Bags of a "Semi-Fixed" Round


These bags are marked similarly to the markings on fixed bags, except that the designation of the weapon is included.  In some cases the caliber is not included.  "Bleidraht im Beutel" indicates lead wire is included in the bag as a decoppering agent.

The number indicating the charge is marked prominently in black.  The letter "D" often follows this number and in some instances the marking is encircled by a red ring.


"Sonderkart" - Supercharge - With certain weapons additional charge sections, to be used for long ranges in place of those in the cartridge case, are supplied in cylindrical cardboard packages.  These sections are numbered in continuation of those supplied for use at normal ranges in the case.  Cardboard packages containing these additional charge sections are marked "Sonderkart" followed by the numeral of the section.


Marking of Primers for "Fixed" and "Semi-Fixed" Ammunition


Designation -- C followed by number.

Example: - C/33
nA - New Pattern
St - Steel


Marking of Flash Reducing Charges


This charge is found in a flat circular silk bag and is identified by the words "Kart. Vorl.", followed by the abbreviation indicating the weapon with which used and the weight of the charge in grams.




 




Next Time: 7.92mm to 30mm Projectiles

Monday, 17 April 2017

British Explosive Ordnance - Army and Navy Demolition Stores







British Explosive Ordnance





Firing Devices and Demolition Stores




General

British firing devices, referred to as switches, are used to initiate booby traps or, in some cases, demolition charges.  Switches generally operate by pull, pressure, release of pressure, or various combinations of these actions.  Time or long-delay switches may utilize the corrosive reaction of acid with metal, or lead fatigue to achieve the delay.  Many types of improvised switches of both electrical and mechanical types may be constructed from common materials, but are not dealt with in this publication.

Demolition stores include the more common Detonators, primers, instantaneous fuze, safety fuse, detonating fuse, prepared demolition charges, and military explosives used by the British.  These stores are used chiefly in demolition work, or in the preparation of booby-trap charges.


Distribution

Switches are ordinarily designated by the "type of action" (pull, pressure, etc.), a "Number" corresponding to the US Navy "Mark", and a Roman numeral "Mark" corresponding to the US Navy "Modification".

The designation of demolition stores varies with the particular item, but usually follows the common "Number" and "Mark" system.






Army Demolition Stores





Bangalore Torpedoes


  
2-inch Bangalore Torpedo Mks I and II: This torpedo, 62.5 inches long and weighing about 25 pounds, consists of a steel body fitted with an ogival hardwood head.  It contains a charge of about 7 pounds of Ammonal with  a Primer Mk II C.E. fitted at the front end.  Two studs are provided near the rear end of the body for assembly of the sections in series.  The body is painted service green or brown, with a red band, below which are located identification stencillings.  Two 1/4-inch buff bands enclose a 1-inch green band on which the letter "A" is stencilled to denote the Ammonal filling.


20-foot Lightweight E.P. Bangalore Torpedo: This torpedo is issued empty in sections 3-foot long and 3-inch in diameter.  It is made of light sheet steel.  Each section is split longitudinally down the center to form a top and bottom half-section.  A wooden nose plug, a wooden tail plug, six junction bands, and nine junction rings are issued with each outfit of seven complete sections of the torpedo.  The torpedo was originally designed to be used in conjunction with the 20-foot Flexible Torpedo, described below, as its filler, but it may be filled with cartridge-type explosive without any canvas lining.


20-foot Flexible E.P. Bangalore Torpedo: This torpedo consists of a 20-foot length of 2-inch diameter canvas hose, filled with "808", Gelignite, or Ammonal.  A double length of Cordtex, passing through regularly spaced primers, runs through the explosive-filled hose.  The torpedo was designed as an assault-demolition weapon to be used in single lengths, coiled, or bundled, or stretched out and tied to other lengths.  When rigidity is desired, this torpedo may be placed inside the 20-foot Lightweight Torpedo, described above.


1 and 1/2-inch Lightweight Bangalore Torpedo Mk I: This torpedo consists of a thin steel tube, 1 and 5/8-inches in diameter.  It is issued in two lengths, 6 feet and 10 feet.  The torpedo is painted brown, with a red band, below which identification stencillings are painted.  Two 1/4-inch buff bands enclose a 1-inch green band on which the letter "A" is stencilled to indicate the Ammonal filler.  An ogival wooden head, fastened to a short metal sleeve with screws, is provided with each set of four sections.  A studded metal band is provided with each section for use in joining the sections together.



Cavity Charges


Stock Charges: The 5-ounce Stock Demolition Charge Mk I and 7-ounce Stock Demolition Charge Mk II are exactly the same, except that the latter is 2 inches longer than the former.  The 5-ounce Charge Mk I is a small, linear cavity charge, consisting of a tin outer casing 6-inches x 1 and 5/16 inches x 2 inches, with an 80 degree angled copper arch fitted so that the apex is 1 and 3/8 inches above the base.  The charge is designed to cut 1-inch of steel.  Two Cordtex leads are led through a groove in the top of the charge, above a series of primer pellets, and are held in place by four straps soldered to the outer casing.  About 4 and 1/2-inches of the Cordtex project from either end of the charge as leads.  A 10-inch tinned copper wire is soldered to each corner of the charge to provide a method of fixing the charge, or of connecting two or more charges together.



Beehive Charges


6-inch Beehive Demolition Charge No.1 Mk III: The 6-inch Beehive No.1 Mk III is a 10 pound cavity charge containing 6 and 3/4 pounds of Pentolite.  The charge measures 6 inches in diameter and 7 inches in length, with three 4 and 1/2 inches legs attached to the base to give the proper stand-off distance.  An 80 degree sheet steel cone is fitted to give a cavity-charge effect.  A removable cap on top of the container covers a primer tube containing the primers into which the detonator is inserted.

From time to time, other sizes of Beehives have been used by the British Army, as follows:
-16-25 pound Demolition Charge No.6 Mk I
-30 pound H.C. Demolition Charge Mk I (Nesting)
-35-50 pound Demolition Charge No.7 Mk I
-60 pound Demolition Charge No.8 Mk I
-75 pound H.C. Demolition Charge No.4 Mk I




Arched Charges



25-pound Arched Demolition Charge No.2 Mk I (General Wade): This charge is an arched linear charge, containing 26 pounds of Pentolite.  The container is made of tin-plate, and measures 9 inches x 12 and 3/4 inches x 6 and 3/8 inches.  The container is semi-cylindrical, with a 2 and 1/4 inches radius arch fitted into the bottom to give the cavity-charge effect.  The charge is designed to be a general purpose charge, combining some of the advantages of the coned type of charge with those of the ordinary contact type.  It is thus adequate to effect serious damage against the majority of targets likely to be encountered by assault troops, i.e., against reinforced concrete and armor plate up to 2 inches in thickness.


26-pound Arched Demolition Charge (M.S. Shape): This charge is a slight adaptation of the General Wade.  The thickness of the explosive at the top has been reduced to 2 and 1/2 inches and the base pressure charge has been increased by about 50% giving the following dimensions, 9 inches x 17 inches x 5 inches.




Hayrick Charges


15-pound Hayrick Demolition Charge No.3 Mk I: The Hayrick charge is a linear cavity charge designed to cut the tension reinforcing bars of reinforced concrete structures.  It consists of a mild steel body containing the HE filling, with a blast plate fitted internally to provide the cavity-charge effect.  The body is rectangular in shape, measuring 11 and 1/4 inches x 6 inches x 17 and 1/2 inches.  One end is open and formed with flanged end plates, while the opposite end is shaped to an apex and carries two detonator sleeves, a sealing plate, and the fuze support.  About 15 pounds of Pentolite make up the HE filler, bringing the total weight to about 27.5 pounds.




Magnetized Charges


 
Clam Mk III: The Clam is a small time bomb with a magnetic base, which enables it to be attached instantly to any flat iron or steel surface, such as engine blocks, railroad tracks, steel plate, etc.

The body is a black plastic box with rounded corners, measuring 5 and 3/4 inches x 2 and 3/4 inches x 1 and 1/2 inches.  At each end of the box is a magnet compartment, in which the two magnets are loosely mounted so that they can grip an uneven surface.  The center compartment of the box contains about 8 ounces of the HE filler, usually Tetryl/TNT 45/55.  The box is closed by a flat lid held in place with four screws.

A standard L. Delay Switch No.9 Mk I, with a Detonator No.27 attached, serves as the delay initiator.  It slips into a groove in the top part of the body and is held in place by a small clip.





Limpet Mk III: The Limpet is a small, self-contained, delay-action mine with a magnetic base, which allows it to be fitted instantly to any iron or steel target, such as a tank or the hull of a ship.

The Limpet is designed to function either on land or under water, and carries a charge of 3 and 1/2 pounds of HE filler, usually Tetryl/TNT 45/55, which is sufficient to pierce 60mm plate.  Exceptionally powerful segmental magnets, flexibly mounted, allow it a firm grip even on uneven surfaces.  It will remain in place on the average vessel at speeds up to 16 knots.

The explosive container of the Limpet Mk III is a separate unit, which can be detached from the magnet ring so that the device can be used without magnets if desired.  This container weighs about 4 and 1/4 pounds filled.  The magnet ring weighs 5 and 1/4 pounds, bringing the total weight of the device to 9 and 1/2 pounds.  A carrying ring is fitted to the top of the limpet body.

A standard L. Delay Switch No.9 Mk I, with a Detonator No.8 attached, serves as the delay initiator.  It is inserted in a special holder, which gives a watertight joint when inserted int he magazine.

The earlier Limpet Mk II was fitted with two magazines, allowing the use of a duplicate igniter system to provide against possible failure.





Rigid Limpet: The British Rigid Limpet is designed for the destruction of tanks or other steel structures.  The device is painted field gray and consists of a rectangular box of sheet brass, 8 and 1/4 inches long x 2 and 1/2 inches wide x 2 and 1/2 inches deep.

The box contains a charge of 2.5 pounds of plastic HE, moulded to accept a detonator at each end.  A pair of brass brackets are riveted to either side of the brass body, and a brass rod is secured between each pair of brackets.  To each rod are fitted three permanent U-shaped magnets, each fastened by metal straps to a rubber mounting.  These magnets are retained in position by flanges on the rod.  The rubber mountings allow limited movement to the magnets, so that the Limpet can be readily attached to uneven surfaces.

An internally threaded brass cap provides a filling hole.  A threaded adapter fixed centrally to the brass filling cap and another threaded adapter fitted to the other end of the body provide means for inserting the AC Delay Igniter Mk I, with which the Limped is fuzed.

This initiating mechanism, used only with the Rigid Limpet, is a chemical-type long-delay device, consisting of a brass body containing a spring-loaded striker.  The head of this striker is sunk in a celluloid disc, retaining the striker under spring compression.

Immediately above the celluloid disc are located cotton wadding and a glass ampoule of solvent accommodated in an enlarged recess in the body.  The top of the body is threaded externally to receive a threaded cap.  Screwed into the center of the cap is a threaded spindle, which bears on a rubber sealing disc.  To the top of the spindle is attached a wing bolt to permit manual operation.  A safety pin pierces the threaded spindle and the cap, preventing the spindle from being screwed down as long as the pin is in place.
 
The device is put in operation by removing the safety pin and screwing down the threaded spindle, thus crushing the ampoule and allowing the solvent to saturate the cotton wadding and work on the celluloid disc.  Eventually the celluloid is sufficiently softened to release the striker, which is then forced by its spring into the detonator threaded to the lower end of the body.  Delay times can be varied by changing the solvent ampoule.  The color of the ampoule indicates the delay at 20 degrees Celsius.

 Dimensions and functioning details of the igniter follow:

Overall length: 5 and 1/2 inches
Detonator length: 4 and 1/2 inches
Body diameter: 1 inch

Delay at 20 degrees Celsius:
-Red ampoule: 4 hours
-Orange ampoule: 7 hours
-Yellow ampoule: 14 hours
-Green ampoule: 22.5 hours
-Blue ampoule: 36 hours
-Violet ampoule: 4.5 days

Delay times will increase at temperatures above 20 degrees Celsius, and decrease if temperatures are below that point.








Navy Demolition Stores






Explosive Charges




C.E./TNT Block Mk I

Explosive weight: 14 ounces
Length: 4 and 1/2 inches
Width: 2 and 1/4 inches
Height: 1 and 7/8 inches
Total weight: 14 ounces
Container: Metal
Remarks: May be made up into a 25-foot chain demolition charge



TNT Block Mk I

Explosive weight: 1.25 pounds
Length: 6 inches
Diameter: 2.4 inches
Total weight: 1.25 pounds
Container: Paper
Remarks: Usually inserted in a TNT Container Mk I, made of sheet steel


 
Amatol Charge Mk I

Explosive weight: 10 pounds
Length: 8.3 inches
Diameter: 6.5 inches
Total weight: 18.5 pounds
Container: Mild steel
Remarks: Receives one 4-ounce primer and a Detonator No.6


 
Amatol Charge Mk I

Explosive weight: 25 pounds
Length: 18.2 inches
Diameter: 6.6 inches
Total weight: 39.5 pounds
Container: Mild steel
Remarks: Receives two 4-ounce primers and No.6 detonators



Amatol Charge Mk II

Explosive weight: 25 pounds
Length: 18.5 inches
Diameter: 6.6 inches
Total weight: 41 pounds
Container: Mild steel
Remarks: Receives one 1 and 1/4 pound TNT block



Amatol Charge Mk I

Explosive weight: 50 pounds
Length: 18.5 inches
Diameter: 9 inches
Total weight: 70.5 pounds
Container: Mild steel
Remarks: Receives two 4-ounce primers and No.6 detonators


 In addition to these, heavy demolition is sometimes accomplished by adapting Depth Charges Mk VII, Mk VIII, Mk XI, and D Mks I and II, and Mine Charge Case Mk V for demolition firing.




Cavity Charges

  
5-pound RDX/TNT Cavity Demolition Charge Mk I: This charge is a liner cavity charge designed for cutting chain, steel wire rope, steel plate, etc.  The charge consists of approximately five pounds of 60/40 RDX/TNT.  The primer pocket will accept either a C.E. Primer Mk I, II, or III, or a 2-ounce Polar Blasting Gelatine Primer.  The charge has been designed for use with Briska Detonators No.6, and is not suitable for use with Detonators No.21 or No.25.  An I.C.I. Gasless Delay Detonator No.1 may be used when the charge is fitted with a C.E. Primer Mk III

The thin sheet-steel case encloses the water-tight cavity.  The case and primer-tube bung are watertight, allowing the charge to be used in depths up to three fathoms.  Two cleats and 6-foot lanyards attached ot the charge enable it to be quickly secured to its target.





Next Time: German Projectiles Introduction

Monday, 10 April 2017

British Explosive Ordnance - Anti-Tank and Anti-Personnel Mines







British Explosive Ordnance





Land Mines Introduction




General

British mine warfare policy is nearly identical to American policy in all major respects.  The British employ anti-tank and anti-personnel mines according to the demands of the situation.  The available information on these types of mines and their fuzes is presented in this section.


Designation

The British designation of their land mines is slightly irregular.  The anti-tank mines are generally designated by a "Mark" in Roman numerals, which corresponds to the US Navy "Mark", and is preceded by the letters "G.S." or "E.P."  Two practice anti-tank mines are designated by "Number" instead of "Mark".  Anti-personnel mines vary considerably in the form of their designation, but are most commonly designated by "Mark", "Number", or both "Number" and "Mark".


Construction

Anti-tank mines generally are of simple construction, consisting of an explosive-filled body containing a fuze housing, and a pressure plate or spider, which fits over the top of the body.

Anti-personnel mines vary widely in construction and are of greater complexity than the anti-tank mines.


Filling

TNT and Baratol are the explosive fillings most commonly used in anti-tank mines, while anti-personnel mines may employ TNT, Amatol, Gelignite, Pentolite 50/50, and RDX/TNT 50/50.


Color and Markings

Land mines are usually olive drab in color and have the mine designation, filling, date of filling, etc. stencilled on the body.

Special markings and coloring are used in some cases.





Anti-Tank Mines





A/T Mine G.S. Mk II (Obsolete)


Diameter: 7 and 1/2 inches
Height: 3 and 1/4 inches
Total weight: 8.5 pounds
Explosive: TNT or Baratol
Explosive weight: 4 pounds
Material: Steel
Fuzing: A/T Contact Mine Fuze No.1 Mk II
Pressure required: 350 pounds (approx.)

Color: Sides and top dark green; bottom yellow, with cross of red and green

  
Description: The Mine G.S. Mk II has three main components: loaded body, cover, and fuze.

The mine cover fits over the body and is supported by a leaf spring.  Pins on the sides of the mine body engage bayonet sockets in the cover.  The cover of this mine must never be removed after the mine is armed.  Words to that effect are stamped on the cover of the mine.

The mine body is cylindrical in shape.  Passing through the center of the mine is a cavity for the insertion of the mine fuze.  During ordinary shipping and storage, this cavity is closed by a shipping plug.  A booster charge in a ring-shaped container is placed in this central cavity.  The remainder of the mine is filled with the explosive main charge.  The mine is fired when the weight of a vehicle overcomes the leaf spring under the cover and allows the cover to force down the top of the fuze.


Use: This mine is used as a defense against armored cars, tanks, or other vehicles.  The mine will break tracks of light and medium tanks, and disable other vehicles.


Assembly and Arming: Place the mine on its edge and unscrew the shipping plug from the center of the bottom of the mine body.  Remove the fuze from its cardboard container and screw it into the mine finger-tight.  Place the mine in its hole cover side up.


Neutralization: To neutralize the mine, reverse the arming procedure outlined above.


Remarks: If mine is to be re-used, inspect the fuze to see that the thin-walled brass sleeve has not been crushed.






A/T Mine G.S. Mk III (Obsolete)
   

Diameter: 6 inches
Height: 5 and 1/4 inches
Total weight: 5 pounds, 10 ounces
Explosive: TNT
Material: Body, tin plate; cover, steel
Fuzing: A/T Contact Mine Fuze No.2 Mk I
Pressure required: 350 pounds

Color: Khaki

  
Description: The Mine G.S. Mk III has three main components: loaded body, cover, and fuze.

The mine cover fits loosely over the top of the body when the mine is laid, and is raised slightly at the center to form a seating for the top of the fuze.  For transit purposes the cover fits over the bottom of the mine and is secured with adhesive tape.

The loaded mine body is cylindrical in shape and is closed at the top with a lid soldered in place.  After filling, the bottom of the mine body is closed with a base plate, which is pressed in and coated with cement for moisture-proofing.  A central well in the mine body is provided for the insertion of the fuze.  immediately below the fuze well is located a C.E. booster pellet surrounding the Detonator No.27, and below that is placed a solid TNT pellet.


Use: This mine is used as a defense against armored cars and other vehicles.  The mine will break tracks of light and medium tanks, and disable other vehicles.


Assembly and Arming: Place the mine in the ground and insert the fuze in the fuze well.  Withdraw the safety pin from the fuze, and place the cover of the mine over the fuze.


Neutralization: Reverse the arming procedure outlined above.


Remarks: If mine is to be re-used, inspect the fuze to see that the shear wire is intact and in position








A/T Mine G.S. Mk IV (Service)
   

Diameter: 8 inches
Height: 5 inches
Total weight: 12.5 pounds
Explosive: TNT or Baratol
Material: Steel
Fuzing: A/T Contact Mine Fuze No.3 Mk I
Pressure required: 350 pounds

Color: Olive drab

  
Description: The Mine G.S. Mk IV has three main components: the loaded mine body, the pressure plate, and the fuze.

The pressure plate covers the entire top of the mine and is attached tot he mine body by four pins, which engage in four slots in metal clips attached to the body.  During normal shipment and storage, adhesive tape binds the pressure plate to the mine body.

The mine body is cylindrical in shape and contains a central well for the insertion of the fuze.  Between the central well and the outside casing of the mine is located the eplosive main charge.


Use: This mine is used as a defense against armored cars, tanks and other vehicles.


Assembly and Arming: Remove the adhesive tape binding the pressure plate to the mine body, and then remove the pressure plate.  Place the mine in the ground and remove the paper seal from the fuze well.  Inspect the fuze to make certain that the shear pin is in position, and then insert the fuze and remove the safety pin.  Replace the pressure plate.  Do not use force when attempting to remove the safety pin.  If it does not come away easily, discard the fuze.


Neutralization: To neutralize this mine, remove the pressure plate and insert a safety pin in the safety-pin hole in the striker.  Remove the fuze from the fuze well.  Lift the mine from the ground and replace the pressure plate.


Remarks: If mine is to be re-used, inspect the fuze to see that the shear wire is in position and has not been cut or partially cut.








A/T Mine G.S. Mk V and VC (Service)
   

Diameter: 8 inches
Height: 4 inches without spider
Total weight: 12.5 pounds
Explosive: TNT or Baratol
Explosive weight: 8 and 1/4 pounds
Material: Steel
Fuzing: A/T Contact Mine Fuze No.3 Mk I
Pressure required: 350 pounds

Color: Olive drab

  
Description: The Mine G.S. Mk V has three main components: the loaded mine body, the fuze, and the spider.  Attached to the mine body are for metal clips with bayonet joints, which engage the pins on the spiders.

The mine body is cylindrical in shape and contains a central well for the insertion of the fuze.  During normal shipping and storage this well is closed at the top by a pressure cap.  A rubber washer, on which rests the pressure cap, is located on the top of the mine around the fuze well.
  

Use: This mine is used as a defence against armored cars, tanks, and other vehicles, the mine will immobilize tanks and vehicles.


Assembly and Arming: After the mine has been placed in th ground, remove the spider and pressure cap.  Inspect the mine fuze to make certain that the shear wire is in place, and then insert the fuze.  Extract the safety pin from the fuze, and replace the pressure cap so that it rests on the rubber washer.  Replace the spider, making certain that the pins engage the slots in the clips.
  

Neutralization: To neutralize this mine, remove the spider and pressure cap and insert a safety pin in the safety-pin hole in the striker head.  Remove the fuze from the well.  Replace the pressure cap and spider and remove mine from its hole.


Remarks: The Mine G.S. Mk VC is identified with the Mine G.S. Mk IV, and is handled in exactly the same way.  However, the Mk VC contains only 4.5 pounds of TNT or Baratol, giving it a total weight of only 8 pounds.

If the mine is to be re-used, inspect the shear pin to see that it has not been cut or partially cut.  Straighten the clips and make certain that the spider can be fitted over the pressure cap without strain.







A/T Mine E.P. Mk II (Obsolete)
   

Diameter: 10 inches
Height: 4 inches
Explosive weight: 4.5 pounds
Material: Steel
Fuzing: Mine Fuze E.P. Mk II

Color: Olive drab

  
DescriptionThe Mine E.P. Mk II consists of three principal parts: the loaded mine body, the mine cover, and the mine fuzing arrangement.  The mine cover is mushroom-shaped and is attached tot he mine body by four hooked straps, which engage a wire fastened to the bottom of the mine cover.

The mine body is a mushroom-shaped container with a central fuze well.  On the side of the mine body near the base is located a channel which leads into the central well.  This channel is closed by a small metal tab during shipment and storage.
   

Use: This mine is used as a defence against armored cars, tanks, and other vehicles.

Assembly and ArmingInsert the ampoule cartridge, red end first, into the open end of a Detonator No.8 and seal with luting.  Replace the assembly in the detonator box.  When ready to lay the mine, remove the steel rod from the hole in the mine body and insert the detonator assembly, ampoule end first, without using force.  Bend the metal tab over the end of the assembly and place the mine in the ground.
   

NeutralizationMine E.P. Mk II should never be neutralized unless absolutely necessary.  They can be disarmed if the detonator assembly will come away easily without using force, but are better destroyed in place.

RemarksOnce laid, these mines are not to be used again even if disarmed.









A/T Mine E.P. Mk V (Obsolescent)
   

Diameter: 8 inches
Height: 2.5 inches
Weight: 8 pounds
Explosive: TNT
Explosive weight: 4.5 pounds
Material: Sheet metal
Fuzing: Exploder E.P. No.1 or No.2
Pressure required: 250-350 pounds

  
DescriptionThe Mine E.P. Mk V consists of three principal components: the loaded mine body, the exploder mechanism, and the mine cover.  The cover is fastened to the mine body by three pins, which engage slots provided in three retaining straps attached to the mine body.

The mine body is mushroom-shaped and contains a central well for the insertion of the special exploder.


UseThis mine is used as a defence against armored cars, tanks, and other vehicles.  The mine will break the tracks of light and medium tanks and disable vehicles.

Assembly and ArmingLay the mine in the ground and remove the cover.  Place an exploder int he inverted cover (To keep dust, etc., from the plunger), and insert an ampoule, red end first, into a Detonator No.8.  Fill the open end of the detonator flush with luting.  Insert this end of the detonator in the hole in the side of the exploder body.  Slide the assembly home and seal in place with more luting.  Grease the exploder before inserting it in the fuze well of the mine.  Refit the cover.
    

NeutralizationTo neutralize this mine, remove the mine cover without putting any downward pressure on the cover, and then life the exploder from the exploder well of the mine.  Remove the plunger from the exploder.  Lift the mine and replace the cover.







A/T Mine E.P. Mk VI (Obsolescent)
   

Diameter: 8 inches
Height: 3 and 1/4 inches
Weight: 8.5 pounds
Explosive: TNT
Explosive weight: 4.5 pounds
Material: Sheet metal
Fuzing: AT Contact Mine Fuze No.3 Mk I
Pressure required: 350 pounds

  
DescriptionThe Mine E.P. Mk VI consists of the following components: loaded mine body, fuze mechanism, and mine cover.  The mine cover is fastened to the body by three pins which engage slots provided in three retaining straps attached to the mine body.

The mine body is mushroom-shaped and contains a central well for the insertion of the fuze.  The mine is similar to the Mine E.P. Mk V, except that the fuze pocket is smaller to accommodate the Fuze No.3 Mk I, and the Mine Mk VI is slightly heavier.


UseThis mine is used as a defence against armored cars, tanks, and other vehicles.  The mine will break tracks of light or medium tanks and disable other vehicles.


Assembly and ArmingRemove the mine cover and place the mine in position in the ground.  Inspect the fuze to make certain that the shear pin is in position.  Then insert the fuze and remove the safety pin.  Replace the mine cover.


NeutralizationTo neutralize this mine, remove the mine cover and insert a safety pin in the safety-pin hole in the striker.  Remove the fuze from the fuze well.  Lift the mine from the ground and replace the mine cover.


Remarks: If the mine is to be re-used, inspect the fuze to make certain that the shear pin is in position and has not been cut or partially cut.








Practice A/T Mines E.P. No.2 and No.3 (Obsolescent)
   

Diameter: 8 inches
Height: 2 and 1/2 inches
Explosive: G-20 Gunpowder
Explosive weight: 120 grains
Material: Sheet metal
Fuzing: Practice Exploder E.P. No.1
Pressure required: 250-350 pounds

  
DescriptionThis mine has four principal components: the mine body, the mine cover, the exploder mechanism, and the Thunderflash gunpowder charge.  The mine cover is fastened to the body by three pins which engage slots provided in three retaining straps attached to the mine body.

The mine body is mushroom-shaped and contains a central well for the insertion of the special exploder.  A hole is drilled in the side of this well near the bottom to allow passage of a short length of instantaneous fuze.  Three equi-spaced one-inch holes are drilled in the top of the mine body to provide gas escape vents.


UseThis mine is used in practice minefields.

Assembly and ArmingLay the mine in the ground and remove the cover.  Inspect the plunger to make certain that the shear wire is intact and in position.  Insert the plunger in the hole provided in the top of the exploder and replace the mine cover.


NeutralizationRemove the mine cover and plunger.


RemarksA/T Practice Mine E.P. No.2 is exactly similar to the Mine No.3 describe above, except that a three-foot length of red instantaneous fuze is substituted for the Thunderflash.

Although this mine is not anti-personnel, the charge is by no means harmless, and due precautions should be taken in disarming, especially if the mine has been subjected to blast.






Anti-Personnel Mines



A/P Shrapnel Mine Mks I and II
   

Diameter: 3 and 1/2 inches
Height: 5 and 1/2 inches
Total weight: 10 pounds
Explosive: Amatol
Explosive weight: 1 pound
Material: Steel
Fuzing: Special fuze
Pull required: 4 pounds

Color: Yellow
  
DescriptionThe Mine Mk II consists of the following component parts: the outer mine canister, the inner case, the detonator-pistol mechanism, and the cartridge-pistol mechanism.

The outer mine canister is nothing more than a container for the inner case and acts as a small mortar to propel the inner case into the air.  The inner case rests on a shoulder int he bottom of the outer canister.  Below this shoulder in the canister is a small recess acting as an expansion chamber for the propellant gases.  A long recess is located on the outside of the canister to retain the lever of the detonator pistol.

The inner case is a cylindrical container for the explosive charge.  Two holes are located in the top of the inner case, one of which passes completely through the case for the insertion of the cartridge pistol, while the other leads into the explosive charge for the insertion of the detonator-pistol mechanism.  During normal shipment and storage, the inner case is held in the outer canister by two screws passing through the bottom of the canister into the case.  These screws must be removed from the mine before it is laid.


Functioning: A pull of four pounds or more on the trip wire will remove the trip plate from the cartridge pistol, allowing the striker spring to force the striker into the cartridge located beneath the pistol.  The explosion of the ballistite cartridge provides the propellant force which throws the inner case into the air.  When the inner case leaves the outer canister, the lever arm is released, freeing the striker in the detonator pistol, which then is forced into the detonator located below the pistol.  The explosion of the detonator fires the main charge of the mine.

UseThis mine is a bounding-anti-personnel mine designed to cause casualties up to 30 yards.
   


Assembly and ArmingFirst make certain that the two transit screws holding the inner case in the outer canister are removed.  Unscrew the cartridge pistol with the spanner provided.  See that cartridge recess is clear and then insert the ballistite cartridge provided with each mine.  Replace the cartridge pistol and make certain that the safety pin is secure.  Remove the detonator pistol, making certain that the safety pin is in place.  Inspect the socket to see that it is clear, and insert the detonator, small end first, so that the cap end rests on a shoulder in the socket.  Replace the detonator pistol so that its firing lever engages int he recess on the outer canister.  Make certain that the safety pin is secure.  Place the mine in the ground and attach a loose trip wire to the cartridge pistol.  Remove the detonator-pistol safety pin, and then the cartridge-pistol safety pin.  If the latter safety pin cannot be withdrawn easily, release the tension and reset the trip plate.


NeutralizationReplace the cartridge-pistol safety pin, and then replace the detonator-pistol safety pin.  Cut the trip wire, and disarm the mine by reversing the procedure for arming.


Remarks: The Mine Mk I is the earlier issue of the shrapnel mine and differs from the Mk II in that the Mk I spring lever is shorter than that provided for the Mine Mk II, and the recess for it in the outer canister does not extend the full length of the Mine.  The Mk I mine has a leather carrying strap.  The detonator of the Mine Mk I has a slight delay action, while that of the Mk II is instantaneous.

Before re-using a shrapnel mine, test it as follows: After disarming the pistols, lift the mine and examine externally.  In removing the cartridge and detonator, note any tendency to stick.  If either cartridge or detonator cannot be removed, discard the mine.  Examine the cartridge and detonator for corrosion.  Examine the empty pistol sockets, and cartridge and detonator recesses for corrosion and wetting.  The detonator socket particularly should be examined for blue or green incrustation.  If found, discard the mine.  Test some of the removed ballistite cartridges and detonators by firing separately.











A/P Mine No.3 Mk I (Obsolescent)
   

Diameter: 2 and 1/2 inches
Height: 6 and 1/8 inches
Explosive: TNT
Explosive weight: 3.5 ounces
Material: Steel
Fuzing: Special fuze

Pressure required:
-At center of plate: 38 pounds
-At edge of plate: 7 pounds

Color: Black
Markings: 1/2-inch ring of red crosses near top; 1/2-inch green ring near base
  
Description: The Mine No.3 Mk I has four principal components: the loaded mine body, the pressure plate, the special percussion fuze, and the base propellant charge.  The pressure plate is a steel disc, four inches in diameter, threaded to the top of the fuze mechanism.

The mine body consists of a cylindrical, corrugated-steel outer casing containing the explosive main charge, and a central tube, threaded into the base of the mine body for the insertion of the fuze mechanism and the propellant charge.  A long tubular recess is provided in one side of the center tube for the insertion of the instantaneous fuze and detonator.

The base assembly consist of a threaded collar into which is fitted the propellant-charge container.  This container holds a charge of about 100 grains of G-20 Gunpowder, and is closed at the bottom by a cup, which is crimped into a groove on the outside of the container.  Two holes are drilled in the top of the container and lead directly to the gunpowder charge.  The first hole contains a short length of safety fuze, which leads to the percussion cap and priming composition.  The second hole contains one end of the length of instantaneous fuze to which the detonator is crimped.  Between the detonator and the instantaneous fuze are about 2.5 grains of sulphurless meal powder, which provides a slight delay.


Functioning: When the striker hits the percussion cap, the safety fuze is ignited and burns from 1 to 2 seconds, allowing sufficient time for the enemy to move forward and remove his foot from the mine.  The flash from the safety fuze ignites the propellant charge and projects the mine into the air.  Simultaneously, the flash from the gunpowder ignites the instantaneous fuze, which fires the detonator when the mine is about 2 to 4 feet in the air.

UseThis mine is a bounding-anti-personnel mine.  The effective lethal range is estimated at 30 yards radius.
  

Assembly and Arming: Place the mine in the ground on a drilled block of wood to provide support.  Pack earth around the mine, and then remove the wing nut and safety spider, being careful not to exert any pressure on the pressure plate.


NeutralizationReverse the process outlined for arming the mine.


RemarksThis mine was developed and produced by the Royal Engineers in India.















A/P Mine E.P. No.4 (Obsolete)
   

Diameter: 2 and 7/8 inches
Height: 4 inches
Weight: 1 pound (approx.)
Explosive: 3 sticks of Gelignite (Each 4-inch x 1 and 1/4-inch in diameter)
Explosive weight: 3/4 pound
Material: Sheet metal
Fuzing: Fuze Unit No.1, with any pull or pressure switch, or with Pressure Switch E.P. No.1
  
Description: The Mine E.P. No.4 consists of three component parts: the outer mine canister, the inner loaded mine case, and the special Fuze Unit No.1.

The outer canister consists of a cylindrical sheet metal container for the inner loaded case.  The outer canister acts as a mortar from which the inner case is projected.  A short tube projects from one side of the outer container near the bottom.  The instantaneous fuze passes through this tube to the switch, when the mine is laid.  The top of the outer canister is closed by a lid.

The inner loaded mine case contains shrapnel set in concrete around the side and bottom.  In the center of the case are located three sticks of Gelignite, which comprise the main explosive charge.  Near one edge of the inner case is located a hole to allow passage of the instantaneous fuze.


Functioning: Operation of the switch initiates the red instantaneous fuze.  The red fuze ignites the black powder charge, which blows the inner mine case out of the canister, and then flashes on to ignite the safety fuze delay.  The safety fuze allows the bomb to fall back to the ground before detonating.

UseThis mine is a bounding shrapnel mine designed for anti-personnel purposes.  When the mine is fired, the bomb jumps from its container, comes to rest on the surface of the ground, and explodes.
  

Assembly and Arming: Remove the lid from the mine, and withdraw the fuze unit and the inner case.  Thread the detonator end of the fuze unit through the hole in the inner case.

Thread the other end through the hole in the outer canister and draw it all the way through, lowering the inner case gently into the canister.  Attach the trip or pressure mechanism to the fuze unit.  Charge the bomb with three sticks of Gelignite; insert he detonator into one stick; and replace the lid of the mine.


Neutralization: Cut the red instantaneous fuze at the most convenient place.  Neutralize the switch.  Remove the lid from the outer canister and pull the detonator from the charge.  Remove the inner case from the container and unthread the fuze unit.


Remarks: Although any British switch may be used with this mine, the switch designed especially for it is the Pressure Switch E.P. No.1.  This switch consists merely of two steel plates, which are hinged together.  The upper plate carries a pressure bar, which, when the plates are forced together, crushes a chemical igniter ampoule contained in a tube on the lower plate.  The end of this tue is open and is of suitable diameter to accept instantaneous fuze.  The fuze is inserted as far as possible, and then crimped in place.












A/P Mine No.5 Mk I (Service)
   

Diameter: 2 inches
Height: 3 and 3/8 inches
Explosive: 50/50 Pentolite or 50/50 RDX/TNT
Explosive weight: 6 and 3/4 ounces
Material: Cardboard
Fuzing: Special fuze

Pressure required: 6 to 12 pounds (approx.)

Color: Brown
Markings: Red band around base;
black band between two green bands around center when Pentolite filled;
single blue band at center when RDX/TNT filled.
  
Description: The mine consists of two principal components: the loaded mine body and the fuze mechanism.

The mine body consists of a cardboard cylinder and ends, containing the explosive main charge.  AA central well is provided for the insertion of the fuze.  A 5-dram perforated C.E. pellet booster is placed around the lower portion of the central well.
  
  
Functioning: Sufficient pressure on the fuze forces the rod down through the collar and releases the retaining balls.  The spring-loaded striker is freed to initiate the explosive train.

UseThis mine is a non-metallic anti-personnel mine, designed to prevent detection by means of mine detectors.  The only metallic parts used in its construction are the detonator, spring, balls, and striker.
  

Assembly and Arming: Place the mine in the grund.  Remove the wooden plug from the fuze well and insert the Detonator No.89 provided.  Check the striker unit to make certain that it is properly assembled, and insert the striker unit in the fuze well above the igniter unit.  Be careful to exert no pressure on the striker unit once it has been inserted in the mine.


NeutralizationTo neutralize this mine, carefully remove the striker unit, lift mine, and remove detonator-igniter unit.


RemarksDue to the non-metallic construction of this mine and the small area, it will be very difficult to detect this mine either with detectors or by probing. 

Because of the small effective pressure area of the striker unit, it is recommended that this area be increased by placing a small piece of wood, etc., above the striker after laying.  A circular steel pressure plate is provided with the later issues of this mine.  The pressure plate has a small bush on  its under surface, which fits over the top of the ebonite striker housing.  The use of this pressure plate will eliminate the non-detectable feature of the mine, but will increase the operating efficiency by increasing the pressure area. 












A/P and Anti-Tire Mine (Service)
   

Diameter: 2 inches
Height: 1 and 1/8 inches
Total weight: 5 ounces
Explosive weight: 2 ounces
Material: Steel
Fuzing: Special

Pressure required: 25 to 75 pounds

Color: Unpainted steel
Markings: 1/2-inch ring of red crosses near top; 1/2-inch green ring near base
  
Description: This mine resembles a small, round, tin ointment box, and consists of two telescoping steel halves.  The smaller bottom half houses the igniter, while the larger top half contains the doughnut-shaped explosive charge, which is glued to the under side of the top with a sticky adhesive substance.


Functioning: When the two halves of the mine are compressed, the detonator holder slides down over the cap-holder sleeve, compressing the striker spring.  At the same time it forces the striker through the copper shear wire, which passes through the head of the striker and the walls of the cap-holder sleeve.  The detonator holder has two diametrically opposed longitudinal grooves, about one third of an inch long, which allow it to slide freely over the cap-holder sleeve without interference from the two projecting ends of the shear wire.  This also serves to position the detonator holder with reference to the cap-holder sleeve, so that the two blast holes in the latter will be adjacent to the two detonators in the former.  When the shear wire is sheared, the the spring forces the striker against the cap.  The flame escapes outward through the blast holes, exploding the two round detonators and the main charge.

UseThis mine is designed for use by the airborne forces.  It will be found laid in fields, along the edges of roads, or in other conspicuous places where the foot soldier or light transport is likely to go.  The charge is sufficient to blow off a man's foot or rupture the tire of a vehicle.  The mine can easily be detected by any type of mine detector.
  

Assembly and Arming: Place the detonator holder over the cap-holder sleeve and screw the cap into the bottom half of the mine body.  Place the top half of the mine over the bottom half, and lay the mine in the ground.


Neutralization: Reverse the procedure outlined for assembly and arming.  This mine has no safety device incorporated in it.


RemarksThis mine has been discovered frequently in France.  It was first reported to be of German origin and labelled the "Ointment Box Mine".















Grenade No.75 Mk I (Adapted for A/P Use) (Service)
   

Height: 1 and 7/8 inches
Length: 6 and 1/2 inches
Width: 3 and 5/8 inches
Total weight: 3 pounds
Explosive: Nobel's No.704 or Ammonal
Explosive weight: 1,5 pounds
Material: Steel
Fuzing: Grenade Igniter No.75 Mk II
Pressure required: 10 pounds (approx.)

Color: Buff
  
Description: This grenade is commonly used as an anti-tank mine, but may be adapter for anti-personnel use.  

One striker bracket has been removed and replaced by a small wooden block, as a safety device.  This block is temporarily held in position by two thumb tacks through the slots in the pressure plate provided for the bracket clips.  A band of adhesive tape around the whole mine positions the pressure plate.
  
Use: The mine is used as a blast-type anti-personnel mine.  The mine should be laid just below the level of the ground, with a slight covering of soil or foliage for concealment.  Care should be taken to ensure that stones or small pieces of wood do not become lodged between the striker plate and the mine body.  These mines should not be laid closer together than three feet to avoid sympathetic detonation.
  

Assembly and Arming: The mine is armed in the usual way.  The detonator is inserted in the igniter (open end to open end) and fastened by the rubber tube provided.  Insert the complete assemblies into the pockets provided ont he top of the mine body, with detonator inwards.  If armed correctly, the red of the igniter can be seen in the gap in the fuze pocket.  Close cover tabs to prevent the detonators from falling out.

Lay the mine in the ground and remove the two thumb tacks by pulling up on the two string loops attached to them.  Remove the wooden block.  Utmost precaution should be taken to put no pressure on the mine pressure plate after it has been set.


NeutralizationTo neutralize this mine, raise the pressure plate and reinsert the wooden block, making it fast with thumb tacks.  Open the flaps on the fuze pockets and remove the fuze assemblies.  Take the fuze assemblies apart, and store the detonators and igniters separately.


RemarksThe A/T Hand Grenades No.75 Mks II and III ("Hawkins Grenades") can be similarly adopted for anti-personnel use.






Next Time: Army and Navy Demolition Stores