Thursday, 28 May 2015

Imperial Japanese Army Ammunition - 20mm Projectiles (Final)

Japanese Explosive Ordnance: Army and Navy Ammunition

Today will be the last post about 20mm Army Projectiles. We start to get into post-1940 projectiles which were used in the Ho-5 cannon seen on many late-war Japanese fighters.

20mm High-Explosive Incendiary Tracer Projectile




Overall Length: 19.52cm
Length of projectile: 11.98cm
Length of case: 12.38cm
Filling: Cyclonite, incendiary composition, tracer composition

Fuzing: Type 100 small instantaneous fuze.

Color and Markings: Black body with red band just abaft bourrelet, green and yellow bands before rotating band. Characters (flexible or fixed machine cannon) stenciled on the body.


Used in: Ho-1 (Flexible) and Ho-3 (Fixed) aircraft cannon.

Remarks:
The projectile is made of steel and has two cavities, a main charge cavity and a tracer cavity, separated by a septum. The main charge cavity contains two pellets, the forward one, fitting around the fuze gaine, is cyclonite while the after one is an incendiary mixture.



Type 100 Mod 2 20mm I.T. (Self-Destroying) Projectile




Overall Length: 20.93cm
Length of projectile: 8.32cm
Filling: Incendiary composition, tracer composition

Fuzing: Type 100 small instantaneous fuze

Color and Markings: Black body with red band just abaft bourrelet, green and yellow bands before rotating band. Characters (Type 100 Mod 2) are stenciled on the body.


Used in: Type 98 anti-aircraft / anti-tank gun

Remarks:
This is the same projectile as the type 100 and type 100 Mod 1 H.E.T. but there is no high explosive other than that used in the gaine.



20mm Armor-Piercing Tracer Projectile




This projectile came in 3 variations: Type 97 anti-tank gun, Ho-1 and Ho-3 aircraft cannons, and Type 98 anti-aircraft and anti-tank gun.

Overall Length: (97) 19.36cm (Ho-) 19.36cm (98) 20.95cm
Length of projectile: (97) 8.01cm (Ho-) 8.09cm (98) 8.01cm
Weight of projectile: (All) 156g
Length of case: (97) 12.38cm (Ho-) 12.38cm (98) 13.97cm
Filling: Tracer composition

Color and Markings:
Hard round (type 100): black body, green and white bands before rotating band.
Medium Round (Type 97) has (type 100) stenciled on the body, black body, green band before rotating band.
Soft round (Type 97 substitute) black overall.

Medium Round Stencil

Used in: Type 97 anti-tank gun, Ho-1 (Flexible) and Ho-3 (Fixed) aircraft cannon, or Type 98 anti-aircraft / anti-tank gun.

Remarks:
This projectile is a solid steel shot with a tracer cavity drilled into the base. This projectile, with different colored tracers and markings is used in three guns. There are three types of rounds differing in grades of hardness of steel.


Ho-5 20mm Ammunition




Excerpt from the Manual: The latest Army 20mm gun developed is the Ho-5 aircraft gun which is of excellent design and represents a considerable improvement over previous Army 20mm aircraft machine guns.

Case properties
Length: 9.48cm
Diameter of base: 2.46cm
Material: Brass
Weight (Empty): 113.5g

Remarks:
The case is of the rimless type and has a slight taper toward the neck.

Propellant: The propellant is 21.4g of graphited smokeless powder in fine cylindrical grains.



Type 2 and Type 2 Modified 20mm H.E.I. Projectile




Overall Length: 14.6cm
Length of projectile: 6.5cm (Fuzed)
Weight of projectile: 77.4g (Fuzed)
Weight of filling:
-Cyclonite (Type 2 Modified): 3.4g
-Cyclonite (Type 2): 0.4g
-Incendiary composition: 3.7g
Filling: Cyclonite and incendiary composition

Fuzing:
-Type 2: Type 2 small instantaneous or Type 2 small instantaneous modified type.
-Type 2 Modified: Type 4 super-detonating fuze.

Color and Markings:
-Type 2: Black overall and, sometimes, yellow band around body.
-Type 2 Modified: projectile is painted silver-gray overall

Remarks:
The difference between the Type 2 and the Type 2 modified is the fuze. The Type 2 projectiles uses a fuze that has an external gaine and thus has less explosive filling than the Type 2 Modified projectile which uses a fuze with the gain built into the fuze body.




Type 4 20mm H.E.I. (Ma 202) Projectile




Overall length: 14.6cm
Length of projectile: 6.6cm
Weight of projectile: 78.2g (fuzed)
Weight of filling:
-P.E.T.N.: 3.2g
-Incendiary composition: 8.7g
Filling: P.E.T.N., and incendiary composition (barium nitrate, aluminium powder, magnesium powder, and wax)

Fuzing: Fuzeless

Color and Markings: Black overall with characters (202)



Remarks:
The projectile is made of steel with a brass nose piece threaded to it. The nose piece is filled with P.E.T.N. and is designed to explode by the crushing action of impact. An incendiary mixture contained in the steel body is separated from the high explosive by a felt pad and a threaded brass disc. This disc has two lead-in holes.



Type 2 20mm Armor-Piercing Tracer Projectile




Overall length: 14.6cm
Length of projectile: 6.35cm
Weight of projectile:
-Soft Round: 112.7g
-Medium Round: 116.7g
-Hard Round: 119.5g
Weight of filling: 7g
Filling: Tracer composition

Color and Markings:
-Soft Round: Black overall
-Medium Round: Black with green band around body.
-Hard Round: Black with a green and a white band around body.

Characters (Type 2) are stenciled on the body


Remarks:
There are three different models of this projectile differing in the grades of hardness of the steel. This difference is indicated by the color markings.


20mm Practice Projectile




Overall length: 14.6cm
Length of projectile: 6.5cm
Weight of projectile: 81g
Filling: None

Color and Markings: Black overall

Remarks:
The projectile approximates the shape of the Type 2 H.E.I. projectile. It is unfilled and closed at the base by a threaded plug.



Next time: 37mm Cannon Projectiles and more!

Imperial Japanese Army Ammunition - 20mm Projectiles (Continued)


Japanese Explosive Ordnance: Army and Navy Ammunition


Back again with more 20mm ammunition for the IJA. We start seeing some Kanji which I hope will be legible in the photos I take, although some are fairly small and low-res. Unfortunately, there's not much I can do aside from reverse-lookups and trying to determine the best/closest approximation.


Here's a few images to illustrate my point.

How many inches?



The drop in quality doesn't help identifying characters



Nor does inverted colors with random blotches of black





Type 98 20mm High Explosive Tracer Projectile

Wait, you did this one last time, right?

Well, apparently this round was used in the Type 97 antitank gun. Yes, it's confusing.




Overall length: 19.45cm
Length of projectile: 6.11cm
Filling: Cyclonite, tracer composition

Fuzing: Type 93 small instantaneous fuze

Color and Markings: Black body with red band just aft of bourrelet, green and yellow bands forward of rotating band. Type 98 is stenciled on the body.


Used in: Type 97 antitank gun

Remarks:
The projectile is made of steel, with two cavities separated by a septum.



Type 100 20mm H.E.T. (Self-Destroying) Projectile




To add even more confusion to the 20mm round category, the Type 100 came in two versions: one for the Type 97 Anti-tank gun, and another for the Type 98 Anti-air/Anti-tank gun. These are marked as (97) and (98), below.

Overall length: (97) 19.36cm (98) 20.83
Length of projectile: (97) 8.21cm (98) 8.21cm
Weight of projectile: (97) 4.7g (98) 4.7g
Filling: Cyclonite, tracer composition

Fuzing: Type 100 experimental projectile used type 93 small instantaneous fuze; other two projectiles use type 100 small instantaneous fuze.

Color and markings: Black body with red band just aft of bourrelet, green and yellow bands forward of rotating band.

Type 100 has the image below stenciled on the body




Type 100 experimental has the image below stenciled on the body




Type 100 Mod 1 has the image below stenciled on the body





Used in: Type 97 anti-tank gun or Type 98 anti-air/anti-tank gun.

Remarks:
The projectile is made of steel with two cavities separated by a septum. Leading through the septum and into the explosive cavity is a black powder lead-in. When the tracer has burned out it will ignite the lead-in which will detonate the explosive filling.

There is an earlier model of this projectile designated Type 100 Experimental which does not have a self-destroying feature. There is also a Type 100 Mod 1 which differs from this projectile in that it is filled with black powder instead of cyclonite.


20mm High Explosive Incendiary Projectile




Overall length: 19.29cm
Length of case: 12.38
Length of projectile: 8.41cm
Weight of projectile: 127g
Filling: Cyclonite, incendiary composition

Fuzing: Type 93 small instantaneous fuze

Color and markings: Black body with red band just abaft bourrelet, yellow band forward of rotating band. The characters (fixed or flexible machine cannon) are stenciled on the body.





Used in: Ho-1 (Flexible) and Ho-3 (Fixed) aircraft cannon.

Remarks:
The projectile is made of steel. It contains two pellets, the forward one surrounding the fuze gaine, is cyclonite while the after pellet is an incendiary mixture.


20mm High-Explosive Incendiary (Ma 201) Projectile




Overall length: 19.29cm
Length of case: 12.38cm
Length of projectile: 8.63cm
Weight of projectile: 109g
Filling: P.E.T.N., incendiary composition

Fuzing: Fuzeless

Color and markings: Black body with red band abaft bourrelet. Characters (201) are stenciled on the body.



Used in: Ho-1 (Flexible) and Ho-3 (Fixed) aircraft cannon

Remarks:
The projectile is made of steel. A brass nose piece filled with P.E.T.N. threads into the incendiary filled projectile. Detonation of the projectile is accomplished by the crushing action of the P.E.T.N. filled nose piece.



Next Time: MORE 20MM!

Monday, 25 May 2015

Soviet Explosive Ordnance - 7.62mm Projectiles (Part 1)

 

7.62mm Ammunition - x25 (Tokarev), x38R (Nagant), x54R

Here we have an extensive look at Russian Small Arms munitions.  Curiously, the manual omits any information pertaining to the 7.62x39.  Maybe they weren't able to acquire any?

7.62mm Revolver Cartridge "Nagant", Type R


This rimmed cartridge was introduced in the year 1895, along with the weapon in which it is used (the limited standard Soviet 7.62mm Nagant revolver M1895). 

 
The unique feature of the cartridge is that the case completely incloses the bullet.  This ammunition was never manufactured in the United States, although firms throughout Europe produced it at one time or another.  The degree of stricture given to the case mouth varies considerably in rounds of different manufacture.  This variation gives a different appearance to the rounds.

 
The bullet core is constructed of the same lead and antimony alloy which is used in rifle bullet cores.  The jacket is of steel, clad with gilding metal.  The bullet is flat-nosed, in order to produce a greater wounding effect.  The propellant consists of smokeless powder selected to obtain a velocity of 935 feet per second at a distance of 30 feet from the muzzle.

Characteristics
Caliber: 7.62 (Cal. .30)
Weight of cartridge: 12.8g (197 gr)
Weight of case: 4.83g (75 gr)
Weight of bullet: 7g (108 gr)
Weight of propellant: 0.89 (14 gr)
Length of cartridge: 38.5mm (1.51 in)
Length of case: 38.5mm (1.51 in)
Length of bullet: 16.5mm (0.65 in)

Packaging
 


These cartridges are usually arranged in groups of 14 witht he heads alternately in opposite directions, wrapped with paper and fastened with a string or tape.  In each zinc-coated, hermetically sealed container are placed 78 such packages, a total of 1,092 cartridges.

 
The wooden box, with two of the hermetically sealed metal containers, holds a total of 2,184 cartridges.  The ends of the wooden packing box are painted purple for identification.

7.62mm Pistol Cartridge, Type P


 
 
This standard Soviet military pistol and submachine gun cartridge is used in the 7.62mm TT pistol M1933 and in all Soviet submachine guns.  It is almost identical to, and is interchangeable with, the German 7.63mm Mauser automatic pistol cartridge.  The basic tactical function of this cartridge is short-range fire against personnel.

 
This cartridge became popular during World War 2 because of the ease with which troops could be taught to use and maintain submachine guns, and because of the factors which made it possible to mass-produce these weapons for large-scale issue.

 
The gilding-metal-clad, steel-jacketed bullet of this cartridge is staked to the rimless, bottle-necked case in three places.  The lead alloy core of the bullet is made from the same material as the core of the light bullet for rifles.

Characteristics
Caliber: 7.62mm (Cal. .30)
Weight of cartridge: 11.2g (170 gr)
Weight of case: 5g (76 gr)
Weight of bullet: 5.6g (86 gr)
Weight of propellant: 0.52g (8 gr)
Length of cartridge: 34.85mm (1.36 in)
Length of case: 24.6mm (0.97 in)
Length of bullet: 14mm (0.55 in)

Packaging


The 7.62mm pistol and submachine gun cartridges are packed 70 to a cardboard box or tar-paper package, with 16 cardboard boxes to a hermetically sealed galvanized-metal container.  Two of these metal containers are packed in a wooden packing box, making a total of 2,240 cartridges.  These wooden packing boxes also have been reported to contain 2,304 cartridges.

It is believed that the difference in the total number of cartridges packed in the wooden box may vary with the manufacturer or the type of packing.  The ends of the wooden packing boxes for this cartridge are believe to be painted black.

 
7.62mm Pistol Cartridge with Armor-Piercing Incendiary Bullet, Type P-41



This P-41 cartridge is identical in external appearance to the 7.62mm pistol cartridge Type P, except for the color markings.  The bullet has an armor-piercing core, however, as well as an incendiary composition inside the nose section of the jacket.  This cartridge possibly can be fire in the 7.62mm TT pistol M1933, but it was designed for use in the submachine guns, to be fire against fuel containers, motorcycles, and unarmored cars.

This cartridge has about the same effective range as the 7.62mm pistol cartridge Type P.  The identifiying feature of this cartridge is the red and black bullet tip.


Characteristics
Caliber: 7.62mm (Cal. .30)
Weight of cartridge: 10.3g (158 gr)
Weight of case: 5g (76 gr)
Weight of bullet: 4.83g (74 gr)
Weight of propellant: 0.54g (8 gr)
Length of cartridge: 34.85mm (1.36 in)
Length of case: 24.6mm (0.97 in)
Length of bullet: 14mm (0.55 in)

  

Packaging
 
 
 


These 7.62mm pistol and submachine gun cartridges are packed 70 to a cardboard box or tar-paper package, with 16 cardboard boxes to a hermetically sealed galvanized-metal container. Two of these metal containers are packed in a wooden packing box, making a total of 2,240 cartridges.  Since the  wooden packing boxes also have been reported to contain 2,304 cartridges, it is believed that the number of rounds per box may at times vary with the manufacturing plant.

 
A black and red stripe on the side of the box, along with the stenciled Russian marking П-41 (P-41) immediately following the caliber size, identifies this cartridge.
 
 


7.62mm Cartridge with Light Bullet M1908, Type L


 
This cartridge was primarily designed for the Soviet rifles and carbines, but may also be used in all Soviet machine guns of this caliber.  It is intended for antipersonnel effect.  The round would probably be more accurately described as the 7.62mm cartridge with light bullet M1908/30, Type L.

 
Prior to 1930 the jacket of the bullet for this cartridge was cupro-nickel; since that date, a steel jacket clad with gilding metal has been used.  The steel-jacketed bullet has a core constructed of a lead and antimony material, and an internal cone is formed in the core at the base of the bullet; this is to create more favorable conditions for obturation.  The cartridge cases are manufactured of either brass or steel, although steel cases seem to predominate.


 
Characteristics
Caliber: 7.62mm (Cal. .30)
Weight of cartridge: 24g (330 gr) [Approximate]
Weight of case (Brass): 9.5g (147 gr)
Weight of case (Steel): 8.7g (134 gr)
Weight of bullet: 9.6g (148 gr)
Weight of propellant: 3.1g (48 gr)
Length of cartridge: 76.8mm (3.02 in)
Length of case: 53.7mm (2.11 in)
Length of bullet: 28.6mm (1.12 in)

 
Packaging


 
This cartridge is often packed in 5-round clips for rifles, 3 such clips to a cardboard box, and 20 cardboard boxes to a galvanized-metal container.  The metal container is hermetically sealed and is marked with the cartridge information as shown in the above illustration.  Two metal containers are packed in a wooden box, making a total of 600 cartridges.

 
The wooden box is marked on the side with the Russian words В ОБОЙМАХ (in clips), in addition to the other cartridge information.  Cartridges also may be found wrapped in 10-round paper packages and packed 880 cartridges per wooden box, for machine guns.  The Russian letter Л (L), following the caliber size, identifies this cartridge.


7.62mm Dummy Cartridge


 
 
This round is used for checking the feeding operation and the general functioning of Soviet 7.62mm weapons.  It is used both in the factories and in military units. 

 
The construction of this cartridge is the same as that for the service cartridge, except that it does not contain a propellant.  A ballast is used to bring its weight up to that of the service cartridge.  The round is nickled plated for identification purposes.

Characteristics
 
Caliber: 7.62mm (Cal. .30)
Weight of cartridge: 24g (330 gr) [Approximate]
Weight of case (Brass): 9.5g (147 gr)
Weight of case (Steel): 8.7g (134 gr)
Weight of bullet: ?g (? gr)
Length of cartridge: 76.8mm (3.02 in)
Length of case: 53.7mm (2.11 in)
Length of bullet: ?mm (? in)

 
Packaging
 
 
No information is available.



7.62mm Blank Cartridge



The Soviet 7.62mm black cartridge is used in tactical exercises and for firing salutes.  This cartridge was also used to launch rifle grenades, specifically the VPG-S-41 rifle grenade.  However, there are no known standard rifle grenades in use by the Soviet Army at present.
 
 
Characteristics

Caliber: 7.62mm (Cal. .30)
Weight of cartridge: 10g (154 gr) [Approximate]
Weight of case (Brass): 9.5g (147 gr)
Weight of case (Steel): 8.7g (134 gr)
Weight of propellant: 0.5g (8 gr)
Length of cartridge: 54mm (2.10 in)
Length of case: 53mm (2.08 in)

Packaging

No information is available.


Next Time: More variants of the 7.62x54R cartridge


Monday, 18 May 2015

Imperial Japanese Army Ammunition - 12.7mm and 20mm Projectiles

Japanese Explosive Ordnance: Army and Navy Ammunition

We start to get into the higher munitions, starting with the 12.7mm cartridge.  It should be noted that the 12.7mm is similar to the .50 cal bullet, but the cartridges have different lengths, which is a very important detail as the diameter alone can be misleading.  The Japanese Army only had one machine gun chambered in 12.7mm, the Ho-103 or Type 1, and was used in aircraft.  The Ho-103 was sometimes referred to the Ho-104, and the only difference between the Ho-103 and Type 1 was that the former was used in a fixed position in the wings and the latter was used in a flexible position as a defensive gun on a bomber.


12.7x81mm Aircraft Cannon Ammunition
Once again, it's a bit of a misnomer to call the 12.7mm round a cannon round, when examples like the MG131 13mm Machine Gun and the M2 Browning were not called cannons.  In any case, the Ho-103 saw extensive use in the air force.





7 variants exist for it, although 3 differ only slightly.


Ball: CuNi jacket and Lead core
A.P.T.: Brass jacket with Steel core
H.E.I. (fuzed Japanese): Brass jacket and P.E.T.N. incendiary and steel core
H.E.I. (fuzed Italian): Brass jacket and P.E.T.N. incendiary and steel core
H.E.I. (fuzed Fuzeless): Brass jacket and P.E.T.N. incendiary and steel core
Tracer: CuNi jacket and Steel core
A.P. (Italian): Gilding metal jacket and Lead tip - steel core


As you might have suspected, the 12.7x81mm cartridge was copied from an Italian design.


Colors and markings were:
Ball: Red
A.P.T.: Black or green and white
H.E.I. fuzed: White
H.E.I. fuzeless: Purple
H.E.I. fuzed (Italian): Red, blue or green body
Tracer: Green
A.P. (Italian): Black tip on the nose

Notes

This ammunition was copied by the Japanese from the Italians.  Of the two H.E.I. fuzed rounds, one is Italian and the other is a Japanese copy of it.  The Japanese H.E.I. fuzed differs from the Italian round in that the fuze used is of two-piece construction instead of one.  This ammunition is packed in 10-round cartons and is reloaded into metal link belts for use.



Type 97 and Type 98 20mm Ammunition


20mm rounds were used by 4 different Army guns, with the Type 97 round being used in the Type 97 antitank gun, the Ho-1 (flexible) cannon and the Ho-3 (fixed) cannon, while the Type 98 round was used in the dual-purpose Type 98 gun.  The Type 97 was 124mm in case length, and the Type 98 was 142mm.  Both cases were made of drawn brass and were rimless.  The case is crimped to the projectile by three long crimps and sealed by a clear lacquer.


Propellant: The propellant is graphited smokeless powder made in single perforated cylindrical grains approximately 1.5mm in diameter and 3mm in length.  The weight of the propellant in the small case is 35.8 grams and, in the large case, 58.9 grams.



20mm (20x142mm) High-Explosive Tracer Projectile





Overall Length: 20.8 cm
Length of projectile: 81.3mm
Weight of projectile: 128.8 grams
Filling: Cyclonite, tracer composition

Color and markings: Black body with yellow band just aft of bourrelet and white badn forward of rotating band.

Fuzing: Type 93 small instantaneous fuze

Used in: Type 98 antiaircraft/antitank gun

Notes:
This projectile is made of steel with two cavities separated by a septum.  The round is characterized by a sharp bourrelet.




Next Time: 20mm Ammunition continued...

Soviet Explosive Ordnance - 37mm Projectiles

 

37mm Complete Round, Fixed, Frag-T, UOR-167




This round is fired from the 37mm Anti-Aircraft Gun M1939.  It is used against aircraft, personnel, and equipment.  The wall thickness and material of the projectile, in conjunction with the type and weight of the explosive filler, are designed to produce the maximum number of lethal fragments.

  The MG-8 fuze is used in this round.



The illustrated container has a capacity of 30 rounds.  The ammunition is packed in two levels (15 rounds in each level) and is held in place by contour blocking.  Rounds may be fuzed, or may have a plastic shipping plug in the fuze well.  When filled with fuzed rounds, the container weighs about 66.7 kg (147 lbs); with unfuzed ammunition, it weighs about 56.2 kg (124 lbs).  The gross weight, given in the form  , may be stenciled on the box.


37mm Complete Round, Fixed, AP-T, UBR-167








This round is fired from the 37mm Anti-Aircraft Gun M1939.  The round is normally fired against ground targets, such as light armoured vehicles.  The armor-piercing tracer projectile BR-167 is a solid shot, without armor-piercing cap.  A windshield is secured to the projectile body by a 360* crimp just forward of the bourrelet.  A tracer element is screwed into the base of the projectile.

  No fuze is used in this round.



The illustrated container has a capacitiy of 30 rounds, with a gross weight of approximately 69 kg (151 lbs).  The ammunition is packed in two levels (15 rounds in each level) and is held in place by contour blocking.

Author's Note: The length of the casing for both examples would restrict their to the 37mm Anti-Aircraft Gun M1939, as the 37mm Anti-Tank Gun M1930 used a slightly longer casing.



I should mention that, due to the nature of the manual I am using as a reference, some of the details may be wrong or incomplete.

Next Time:  7.62mm Ammunition

Wednesday, 13 May 2015

Soviet Explosive Ordnance - Markings System Part 3

Identification of Soviet Projectiles and Projectile Fragments (Part 3)

Colouring System:

a. History. 
In 1938, the Soviet system of colour marking projectiles was simplified.  The earlier system, not described in this manual, is obsolete .

b. Current Projectile Colouring System. 
In peace-time, Soviet artillery projectiles of caliber 76.2mm and larger are normally painted gray, with appropriate identifying colour bands.  Shrapnel projectiles are exceptions to the rule; ball shrapnel is painted yellow, while bar shrapnel is khaki.

During wartime all projectiles are left unpainted, except for identifying colour bands on certain types.  These unpainted projectiles are sand-scoured, have the colour band (if any) and other pertinent identifying markings applied, and are then coated with a heavy grease as a protection against the elements.

c. Identifying Colour Bands. 
Projectile colour bands are used in both peace and war.  These bands are usually located between the bourrelet and the rotating band, and identify the projectile as to type and method of manufacture.  Colour bands, their meaning and location on the projectile, are given below.

(1) Below the Bourrelet

Red -- Incendiary, Armor-Piercing Incendiary, and Armor-Piercing Incendiary Tracer Projectiles
Blue -- Concrete-Piercing Projectiles
Black -- Smoke Projectiles
White -- Illuminating (Star) Projectiles
Yellow -- Ball Shrapnel Projectiles
Khaki -- Bar Shrapnel Projectiles
Green -- Gas Projectile (One band indicates non-persistent gas, two bands indicates persistent gas)
(2) Above the Rotating Band

Black -- Cast Iron Projectile (not to be confused with smoke projectiles, which have a black band below the bourrelet).

d. Projectiles without Colour Bands.
The following types of projetiles are normally left unpainted in wartime, painted gray in peacetime, and have no colour bands in either case (unless the projectile is cast iron, when a black band appears just above the rotating band):
Fragmentation
Fragmentation High-Explosive
High-Explosive
Armor-Piercing (without incendiary element)
Armor-Piercing Tracer (without incendiary element)
High-Explosive Anti-Tank (HEAT)
High-Velocity Armor-Piercing (HVAP)

e. Extent of Colouring System.
It is not definitely known whether the described colouring system applies to all projectiles.  Dark green fragmentation projectiles for 85mm AA guns, and fragmentation high-explosive projectiles for 122mm howitzers, each type manufactured since 1938, have been examined.  Neither caliber bore identifying colour bands.
However, it is believed that the colour marking system explained above is universal throughout the Soviet Army, and that the dark green projectiles were probably painted after leaving the arsenal, for protection against rust or corrosion.

Soviet Ammunition Example



Next Time: 37mm Projectiles

Imperial Japanese Army Ammunition - 8mm and 9mm Pistol Projectiles

8mm Pistol Ammunition

The 8mm round was a Ball type, CuNi jacketed and had a Lead core.

8mm Pistol Ammunition Characteristics
Overall Length: 1 and 1/4 inches
Length of Case: 13/16 inches
Length of Projectile: 19/32 inches
 Weight of Projectile: 102 grams

It was used in the Type 14 Nambu pistol, Hamada (Type 1 or Type 2) type pistol, Type 94 Nambu pistol, North China Type 19 pistol, Model 1927, Type 100 SMG, and several other guns. Interestingly, the TM mentions a "Solothurn" submachine gun and a "Bren Type" submachine gun.

Notes:
The propelling case is rimless and made of brass. There is a tear-gas round, but specifications indicate that this is a relatively large missile and it is probably launched from the pistol somewhat in the manner of launching grenades from a rifle.





9mm Pistol Ammunition

The 9mm round was of Ball type with CuNi jacket and lead core.

9mm Pistol Ammunition Characteristics
Overall Length: 1 and 1/8 inches
Length of Case: 27/32 inches
Length of Projectile: 5/8 inches
Weight of Projectile: 150 grams


The manual states they were used in the Type 26 revolver (Webley type) and the Smith and Wesson pistol, although I have no clue what that latter is. It should also be noted that the 9mm pistol ammo should really be called 9mm Japanese Revolver.


Notes:
The propelling case is rimless and made of brass. There is a tear-gas round similar to that mentioned for the 8mm pistol cartridge.


Next time: 12.7mm Cannon (HMG rounds) and 20mm Cannon ammunition

Thursday, 7 May 2015

Soviet Explosive Ordnance - Markings System Part 2

 

Identification of Soviet Projectiles and Projectile Fragments (Part 2)

Markings System (Continued):

c. Identification Code Symbols for Projectiles.
The identification code of a projectile is usually stenciled in black paint between the bourrelet and the rotating band.  The symbols which appear in the three components of the code are listed and explained below.

(1) In the first component.  The first component in the code designation of a projectile is the number 53.  This number identifies the supplying agency, Department 53.  In practice, as previously noted, this component is usually omitted from the marking on the item.

(2) In the second component.  This component consists only of Russian letters and identifies the projectile by type.  An exception to this rule is the code designation for an HVAP (arrowhead) projectile; in this case, the standard code for an armor-piercing projectile is supplemented by the letter "П," which follows the Arabic numerals in the third component. 

Thus, БP-350 is an AP-T projectile, but БP-350П is an HVAP-T.  It must be remembered that the meanins given for the following list of Russian letters are valid only when the letters appear in the second component of the code designation for a projectile.

А -- Propaganda (Leaflet)                                 
Б -- Armor-Piercing                                          
      БЗ -- Armor-Piercing Incendiary                            
БЗP -- Armor-Piercing Incendiary Tracer        
БП -- High-Explosive Anti-tank                       
БP -- Armor-Piercing Tracer                            
Г -- Concrete-piercing                                      
Д -- Smoke                                                        
З -- Incendiary                                                   
О -- Fragmentation                                            
ОЗ -- Fragmentation Incendiary                        
ОЗP -- Fragmentation Incendiary Tracer          
ОP -- Fragmentation Tracer                              
ОФ -- Fragmentation High-Explosive              
OФP -- Fragmentation High-Explosive Tracer
OХ -- Fragmentation Gas                                 
ПУ -- Target Practice                                       
                 P -- Tracer                                                                         
         C -- Illuminating (star)                                              
        Ф -- High-Explosive                                                 
X -- Gas                                                            
Ш -- Shrapnel                                                   
Щ -- Canister                                                    
            

           
(3) In the third component.  The third component consists of three Arabic numerals, which are sometimes followed by one to four Russian letters.  The numerals identify the model of the projectile, by identifying the weapon or weapons in which the ammunition may be fired.  The below-listed numbers of the third component have been found on projectiles used in the weapons named.  However, documentary evidence does not indicate that all projectiles with the same number are actually fired in all the weapons associated with the number.

For example, the projectile ОФ-350 is known to be fired in 76.2mm Mountain Guns (Howitzers) M1909 and M1938, but projectile БР-350A appears to be fired only in the latter of the two models.  Following the list of numbers which appear in the third component, is a list of Russian letters; the meanins given for these letters are valid only when the letters appear after the numbers in the third component.






 Letters                Meaning     (Note - when meanings are doubtful, the letter is followed by an *)
  A*         Projectile of English design (When no black band appears above the rotating band on proj. 
  A           Ballistic Cap electrically welded to proj. (in conj. with black band above ? band on AP proj)
  A           Cast iron projectile (in conj. with black band above and adjacent to the rotating band)         
 АГ*        Cast iron projectile (in conj. with black band above rotating band), using a T-series fuze
AM *       Cast iron projectile (in conj. with black band above rotating band), using mechanical igniferous fuze
 Б*          Filler contains an incendiary element
 B            Disruptive fuze
 Г*          Projectile uses a series "T" fuze
 Д*          Uses a series "Д" fuze (applies only to cannon projectiles)
 Д            Ten-finned (applies only to mortar projectiles)
 К            Improved model of original projectile
 Л            Improved model of original projectile
M*          Uses a mechanical igniferous fuze
H*           Improved model of original projectile
П             High-velocity Armor-piercing (arrowhead). When the symbol for an AP proj., Б, appears in the 2nd component
          Solid shot. When the symbol for an AP proj., Б, appears in the 2nd component
C             Early model projectile
T             Uses a series "T" igniferous fuze
У*           Uses a series "УTT" fuze
Я             Projectile of Japanese design
П             Ball shrapnel (when symbol for shrapnel proj. "Ш" appears in 2nd component)
C             Ball shrapnel (same as above)
P             Projectile designed by Rosenberg
У            A reduced propellant charge
Ш           Six-finned projectile (applies only to mortar projectiles)      

   
d. Other Projectile Markings.  In addition to the identification code, various other markings usually appear on the projectile.  These give information on the filler, weight classification, fuze, lot number, year of manufacture, steel smelt number, manufacturing arsenal, inspection by the arsenal, acceptance by the army, etc.  The symbols conveying such information are usually stenciled on the projectile in black paint.


(1) Symbols identifying explosive fillers
T - Trotyl (TNT)
TT - TNT and cyclonite (numbers following denote % of TNT)
Г - Hexogen (cyclonite, or RDX)
Ш - Schneiderite
T/80 - TNT/RDX 80/20
K-1 - 70% TNT  30% Dinitrobenzol
K-2 - 80% TNT  20% Dinitrobenzol
Ш-T - Schneiderite 88/12
ДБ - Dinitrobenzol
ДБT - Dinitrobenzol - TNT
A - Amatol
TC - Trotyl Sulphite
A-40 - Amatol 40/60
AT/90 - Amatol 90/10
A/80 - Amatol 80/20
A-IX-2 - 73% RDX, 23% Aluminium, 4% Wax
M - Picric Acid
TДУ - Type unknown (Possibly TNT + Fumyl)
ATФ-40 - Phlegmatized Amatol 40/60

(2) Symbols identifying chemical fillers
P-4 - White Phosphorous
P-5 - Mustard Gas
PC - Lewisite Gas
PIO - Phosgene Gas
P-15 - Adamsite Gas

(3) Weight classification symbols
TЖ—   More than 3% above standard weight
++++-    From 2.33% to 3% above standard weight
+++-   From 1.66% to 2.33% above standard weight
++-   From 1.0% to 1.66% above standard weight
+-    From 0.33% to 1.0% above standard weight
H—    From 0.33% above to 0.33% below standard weight
- —    From 0.33% to 1.0% below standard weight
- - —    From 1.0% to 1.66% below standard weight
- - - —    From 1.66% to 2.33% below standard weight
- - - - —    From 2.33% to 3% below standard weight
ДГ—    More than 3% below standard weight

Next time: Soviet Projectile Colouring System and example projectile

Sunday, 3 May 2015

Soviet Explosive Ordnance - Markings System Part 1

 

Identification of Soviet Projectiles and Projectile Fragments (Part 1)
Markings System:
a. History - Prior to 1938 each Soviet munitions manufacturing arsenal and loading plant used its own system for identification markings.  The resultant lack of uniformity in markings created considerable confusion within the supply and using agencies. 

In 1938 the Soviets corrected this situation by adopting a uniform markings system and organizing the artillery supply system into three seperate departments.  Each department was made responsible for the supply of specified items of artillery and given a numerical designation; this department number is included in the official identification code for the artillery items for which the department is responsible, as explained in b below 

The three departments are listed below:

(1) Department 52.  The "Department of Artillery Equipments." Responsible for the supply of all artillery weapons, mounts, fire control instruments, and related equipment, excepting ammunition.

(2) Department 53.  The "Department of Fixed Ammunition, Projectiles, Fuzes, and their Packing."  Responsible for the supply of all fuzes, projectiles, and fixed complete rounds, as well as the packing for these items.

(3) Department 54.  The "Department of Charges and Cases."  Responsible for the supply of all powder bags and propellants, and all cartridge cases except those for fixed ammunition, as well as the packing for these items.

b. The Identification Code.  Identification codes are used in Departments 52, 53 and 54 in order to designate various artillery items briefly and, at the same time, clearly.  The codes follow a pattern common to all three departments, and may be distinguished from other markings by virtue of this pattern.  They consist of certain combinations of Arabic numerals and letters of the Russian alphabet, and may be full or shortened. 

The full code designation consists of three components, separated by dashes, which appear within the designation in the order named:

First, a group of two numerals, identifying the department responsible for the supply of the item concerned (a (1), (2), and (3) above);

Second, a group of one to four letters of the Russian alphabelt, designating the item by type; and

Third, a group of three numerals which identify the individual item or model, and which are sometimes followed by one to four Russian letters giving additional information on the item.

The shortened code is usually to be found on the item itself and consists only of the second and third components.  The omission of the first component from the shortened code is not apt to lead to confusion, since the supplying agency can generally be identified merely from observation of the item; for example, guns obviously fall under Department 52, projectiles under Department 53, and powder bags under Department 54.

In the following examples of both full and shortened code designation of artillery items, it should be borne in mind that: in most cases, the shortened code appears on the item and/or its packing; and that the same Russian letters have entirely different meanings when used by the different supply departments, or when in different positions within the same designation.

(1) Items under Department 52.
Full Code: 52-П-354
Shortened: П-354
52, the first component, identifies the supplying agency: Department 52.
П, the second component, designates the item by type: a gun.
354, the third component, identifies the model:
(35) means the item is a member of the 35th group of artillery weapons, which consists of 76mm guns - other than AA guns -
(4) means the item is a member of the 4th series of models in that group, the Model 1902/30.
Thus, the item is the 76mm Divisional Gun, Model 1902/30 - or one of the weapons having the same ballistic characteristics.
Note - Ballistically identical models of the same group are given the same code number; thus, "354" also denotes the 76mm Divisional Guns: M1942 (ZIS-3), M1936, M1939, M1942 (ZIS-2) and M1940


(2) Items under Department 53.
Full Code: 53-БП-354A
Shortened: БП-354A
53, the supplying agency: Department 53.
БП, the type of item: a HEAT (БП) projectile.
354A, the model: (354) for the 76mm Divisional Gun, Model 1902/30 - or its ballistic equivalent -
(A) a cast iron projectile.


(3) Items under Department 54.
Full Code: 54-Б-534
Shortened: Б-534
54, the supplying agency: Department 54.
Б, the type of item: propellant in a bag, for insertion into the cartridge case.
534, the model: for the 152mm Howitzer, Model 1909/30 - or its ballistic equivalent.

Next time: Identification Code Symbols, Markings