Monday, 30 November 2015

Imperial Japanese Navy Ammunition - 127mm Projectiles

Imperial Japanese Navy Ammunition
 
12.7cm (127mm)(5-inch) Complete Round (Fixed)
  
 
Case:
-Length: 22.88 inches
-Diameter of base: 6.66 inches
-Material: Brass
-Weight (empty): 16.28 lbs
 
The case is crimped tightly into a groove in the base of the projetile by a single continuous crimp.
 
Propellant:  21 DC (Type 13 propellant): 8.87 lbs
 
Unperforated cylindrical sticks approximately 2.1mm by 15.75 in, graphited double-base powder.  The propellant sticks are enclosed in a compartmented bag of heavy brownish silk.
 
Primer: Mk 2 case percussion primer Model 4
 
Weapons used in:
-Type 88 12.7cm/40 dual-purpose gun
-Type 89 12.7cm/40 dual-purpose gun (twin)
 
This latter is a modern gun, paired in a twin power-driven mount designed especially for anti-aircraft aboard ships.  It has been found ashore, unaltered, in the characteristic gun-house mount used aboard ship.
 
Special features of this gun and mount are horizontal opposed sliding breech blocks, full power drive, and automatic fuze-setting accomplished as the loading tray moves the round into position to be rammed.  The arrangement for loading and fuze-setting and the general plan of the mount corresponds closely to that of the Type 98 10cm/65 twin mount.
 
 
 
 
 
12.7cm (127mm)(5-inch) High-Explosive
 
 
Assembled round:
-Weight of complete round: 73.57 lbs
-Length of complete round (with Type 91 fuze): 36 inches (approx)
 
Projectile:
-Weight of filled projectile (without fuze): 48.42 lbs
-Weight of empty projectile: 44.48 lbs
-Weight stamped on rotating band (sample): 20.17kg (varies with individual projectiles)
 
Dimensions:
-Length of projectile (without fuze): 14.9 inches
-Diameter at bourrelet: 4.96 inches
-Distance from base to rotating band: 1.19 inches
-Width of rotating band: 1.95 inches
-Radius of ogive: 6 cal.
 
Filling:
-Cast picric acid (shimose): 3.94 lbs
 
The charge consists of a single block of explosive cast and sealed in a waxed-paper container, encased in a heavy cotton-flannel bag and sealed in the projectile with paraffin.
 
Fuzing:
-Type 91 mechanical time fuze
-Type 88 point detonating fuze
 
Weapons used in:
-Type 89 12.7cm/40 dual-purpose gun
-Type 88 12.7cm/40 dual-purpose gun
 
 
 
  
(Type 3 Ordinary) 12.7cm (127mm)(5-inch) Incendiary Shrapnel
   
 
Assembled round:
-Weight of complete round: 78.36 lbs
-Length of complete round (without fuze): 36.43 inches
 
Projectile:
-Weight of filled projectile (without fuze): 53.21 lbs
-Weight of empty projectile: No Data
-Weight stamped on rotating band (sample): 17.17 kg (varies with individual projectiles)
 
Dimensions:
-Length of projectile (without fuze): 14.8 inches
-Diameter at bourrelet: 4.97 inches
-Distance from base to rotating band: 1.25 inches
-Width of rotating band: 2 inches
-Radius of ogive: 6 cal
 
Filling:
-Cast picric acid (shimose): 162 grams
-Tetryl: 2.3 grams
-Lead Azide: 0.13 grams
-Black powder: 35 grams
 
Incendiary charge (43 steel pellets 50mm in length and 20mm in diameter filled with a dry incendiary mix of the following composition):
-Magnesium: 54 percent
-Barium dioxide: 26 percent
-Rubber: 15 percent
-Iron oxide: 1.5 percent
-Sulphur: 3 percent
 
Fuzing: Type 91 mechanical time fuze
 
Weapons used in:
-Type 89 12.7cm/40 high-angle gun.
 
Remarks:
The black powder charge in the nose ignites the incendiary pellets and flashes down the central tube igniting relay disks and the expelling charge.
 
The expelling charge ejects the incendiary pellets and ignites a primer in the base section which detonates the gaine and bursting charge.
 
 
 
 
12.7cm (127mm)(5-inch) Practice
 
 
Assembled round:
-Weight of complete round: 75.84 lbs
-Length of complete round: 40.2 lbs
 
Projectile:
-Weight of filled projectile: 50.69 lbs
-Weight of empty projectile: 48.10 lbs
-Weight stamped on rotating band (sample): 21.8 kg (varies with individual projectiles)
 
Dimensions:
-Length of projectile: 17.31 inches
-Diameter at bourrelet: 4.97 inches
-Distance from base to rotating band: 1.61 inches
-Width of rotating band: 1.95 inches
-Radius of ogive: 6 cal
 
Filling: Sand
 
Fuzing: None
 
Weapons used in:
-Type 89 12.7cm/40 dual-purpose gun
 
 
 
 
Next Time:  14cm Projectiles

Monday, 23 November 2015

Soviet Explosive Ordnance - Rockets

  
  
  
  
Soviet Explosive Ordnance
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
82mm Rocket, HE, Model RS-82
  
  
This high-explosive rocket originally was designed to be launched from aircraft; however, it was also used as a ground-to-air or ground-to-ground rocket.   The RO-82 aircraft launcher, or a 48-round truck-mounted ground launcher (designation unknown), may be used to fire this rocket.  High-explosive rocket fire is used against a variety of ground targets.
  
This rocket, 24.4 inches in length without the fuze, consists of a warhead, a motor body, and a tail unit with four stabilizing fins.  Studs threaded into each end of the motor body guide the rocket along the slotted launcher rail.  The warhead is a machined steel forging in which three circumferential grooves are cut to facilitate fragmentation.  The propeller-armed nose fuze is inserted into the threaded well of the warhead.  The AGDT-a fuze is used with this rocket for fire against aerial targets, and the AM-a fuze is used for ground fire.
  
The motor body, a machined cylinder, is closed at the forward end except for an internally threaded flange by means of which it is attached to the rear of the warhead.  A black powder igniter placed at each end of the propellent charge in the motor body is ignited by the PP-1 or PP-4 flash cartridges.  The rear end of the motor body is threaded internally to accommodate the single nozzle. 
  
Each of the four stabilizing fins is constructed of two pieces of sheet metal, which are welded together, slotted, and welded to the metal cone covering the nozzle.
  
  
  
Characteristics
Caliber: 82mm (3.23 in)
Total weight of rocket: 6.82kg (15 lbs)
Weight of warhead: 2.5kg (5.5 lbs)
Weight of propellant: 1.06kg (2.3 lbs)
Type of warhead filler: TNT
Weight of warhead filler: 0.4kg (0.88 lb)
Maximum velocity: 350 m/s (1,148 fps)
Maximum range: 6km (6,780 yards)
  
  
Packaging
  
(No Illustration Available) 
  
The Model RS-82 rocket is crated (without fuze) at the munitions plant.  Fuzes are packed seperately in small wooden boxes.  The fuze well in the warhead is filled with a wooden insert and sealed with a threaded plug for shipment, both of which are removed and replaced by the appropriate fuze, in order to arm the rocket.
  
The combustion chamber is armed with PP-1 or PP-4 flash cartridges at the factory.  The rockets are covered with grease as a protection from corrosion and rust.
  
Crates are marked with a tag identifying the lot number of the shipment, the year of manufacture, the manufacturing plant, and the number of rockets contained within the crate.
  
  
  
  
  
82mm Rocket, AP, Model RBS-82
  
   
This armor-piercing rocket originally was designed to be launched from the 82mm aircraft launcher RO-82; however, it is believed that it also may be fired from a 48-round truck-mounted ground launcher (designation unknown).  The RBS-82 armor-piercing rocket is designed for fire against armored targets.  It is designed to penetrate armor up to 50mm (2 inches) in thickness.  This rocket is reported to have been used successfully against German armor in World War II.
  
The RBS-82 rocket, 40.75 inches in length, consists of a warhead, a motor body, and a tail unit with stabilizing fins.  Studs are threaded into each end of the motor body to guide the rocket along the slotted launcher rail.  The warhead is filled with TNT, and is thicker-walled than that of the RS-82.
  
The forward end of the warhead is bluntly rounded and flat-nosed to reduce ricochet, but it is fitted with a metal or plastic ballistic cap.  The AV-96 impact fuze used with this rocket is seated in a threaded well in the base of the warhead.  The motor body is longer than that of the RS-82, and it contains three powder sticks and three igniters; it is threaded to the base plate of the warhead.  The propellant is ignited by means of PP-1 or PP-4 flash cartridges, which are inserted into flash cartridge holders in the rocket launcher.  The nozzle assembly is threaded into the rear of the motor body.
  
Each of the four stabilizing fins is constructed of two pieces of sheet metal welded together.  The fins are slotted and welded to the metal cone covering the nozzle.
  
   
  
Characteristics
Caliber: 82mm (3.23 in)
Total weight of rocket: 15kg (33 lbs)
Weight of warhead: 7.27kg (16 lbs)
Weight of propellant: 2.5kg (5.5 lbs)
Type of warhead filler: TNT
Weight of warhead filler: 0.48kg (1.06 lb)
Maximum velocity: 360 m/s (1,180 fps)
Maximum range: 6.4km (7,000 yards)
  
  
Packaging
  
 (No Illustration Available) 
  
The armor-piercing rocket RBS-82 is crated (with fuze) at the munitions plant.  PP-1 and PP-4 flash cartridges are shipped seperately.  The rocket is covered with grease as a protection from corrosion and rust.
  
Crates are marked with a tag identifying the lot number of the shipment, the year of manufacture, the manufacturing plant, and the number of rockets contained within the crate.
  
  
  
  
  
132mm Rocket, HE, Model RS-132
   
  
This high-explosive rocket originally was designed to be launched from aircraft; however, it also has been used as a ground-to-ground rocket.  The RO-132 aircraft launcher, or the M-13 (a 16-rocket truck-mounted ground launcher), is used to fire this rocket.  High-explosive rocket fire is used against a variety of ground targets.  The RS-132, an enlarged version of the RS-82, is one of the standard Soviet rockets.
   
This rocket, 36.8 inches long without the fuze, consists of a warhead, a motor body, and a tail unit with four stabilizing fins.  Studs threaded into each end of the motor body guide the rocket along the slotted launcher rail.  The warhead is a machined steel forging in which three circumferential grooves are cut to facilitate fragmentation.  The propeller-armed nose fuze is inserted into the threaded well of the warhead.  The AGDT-a fuze is used with this rocket when it is fired from aircraft, and the AM-a fuze is used for ground-to-ground fire.
  
The motor body is a machined cylinder containing the propellent charge, and it is closed at the forward end except for an internally threaded flange by means of which it is attached to the rear of the warhead.  The rear of the motor body is threaded internally to accommodate the single nozzle.  Each of the four stabilizing fins is constructed of two pieces of sheet metal, which are welded together, slotted, and welded to the metal cone covering the nozzle.
  
  
Characteristics
Caliber: 132mm (5.2 in)
Total weight of rocket: 23.1kg (50.8 lbs)
Weight of warhead: 9.12kg (20.06 lbs)
Weight of propellant: 3.78kg (8.32 lbs)
Type of warhead filler: TNT
Weight of warhead filler: 1.9kg (4.18 lb)
Maximum velocity: 350 m/s (1,148 fps)
Maximum range: 7.1km (7,763 yards)
  
  
Packaging
  
 (No Illustration Available) 
  
The Model RS-132 rocket is crated (without fuze) at the munitions plant.  Fuzes are packed seperately in small wooden boxes.  The fuze well in the warhead is filled with a wooden insert and sealed with a threaded plug for shipment.  The threaded plug and wooden insert must be removed and replaced by the appropriate fuze, in order to arm the rocket.  The combustion chamber is armed with PP-4 pyro cartridges at the factory.  Rockets are covered with grease as a protection from corrosion and rust.
  
Crates are marked with a tag identifying the lot number of the shipment, the year of manufacture, the manufacturing plant, and the number of rockets contained within the crate.
  
  
  
  
132mm Rocket, Frag-HE, Model ROFS-132
  
  
This fragmentation high-explosive rocket may be launched from the RO-132 aircraft launcher or from the M-13, a standard 16-rocket truck-mounted ground launcher.  The ROFS-132 rocket is used for blast and fragmentation effect.  The fragmentation effect is believed comparable to that of a 152mm artillery projectile.
  
The nomenclature of the rocket is somewhat confusing.  It is believed that the model manufactured prior to World War II was called the ROFS-132.  An improved model of the same rocket has been given the nomenclature TS-13.  The TS-13 is thought to be almost the same as the ROFS-132, but designed exclusively for ground launchers, whereas the ROFS-132 is launched from either aircraft or ground launchers. 
  
Another postwar improved model of the basic rocket, tentatively identified as the TS-53, is identical in construction with the TS-13, except that it has 12 subsidiary nozzles.  These auxiliary nozzles, each 3mm (0.12 in) in diameter, are arranged around the circumference of the motor body at equal intervals and are set transversely to the longitudinal axis of the rocket.  About 7 percent of the propellent gas passes through them, rotating the rocket at a rate of about 20 to 30 revolutions per second.
  
The ROFS-132, which measures 56.6 inches in length without the fuze, consists of a warhead, a motor body, and a tail unit.  The warhead is an elongated, thick-walled body with a threaded well at the nose for the insertion of the GVMZ fuze.  The AM-a fuze also may be used with this rocket, but it requires an adapter sleeve.  The motor body is a seamless, machined tube, identical in construction with the motor body of the RS-132 rocket, and it contains the propellent charge.
  
Each of the four fluted stabilizing fins of the ROFS-132 is constructed of two pieces of sheet metal which are welded together, slotted, and welded to the metal cone covering the nozzle.
  
  
  
Characteristics
Caliber: 132mm (5.2 in)
Total weight of rocket: 43kg (94.6 lbs)
Weight of warhead: 22kg (48.4 lbs)
Weight of propellant: 7.2kg (15.84 lbs)
Type of warhead filler: TNT
Weight of warhead filler: 4.6kg (10.12 lb)
Maximum velocity: 360 m/s (1,180 fps)
Maximum range: 6km (6,540 yards)
  
  
Packaging
  
(No Illustration Available)  
  
The Model ROFS-132 is crated (without fuze) at the munitions plant.  Fuzes are packed seperately in small wooden boxes.  The PP-4 flash cartridges are inserted in the combustion chambers of ROFS-132 rockets, and the rockets are shipped to arsenals and troop units in that form.  Rockets are covered with grease, as a protection from corrosion and rust.
  
Crates are marked with a tag identifying the lot number of the shipment, the year of manufacture, the manufacturing plant, and the number of rockets contained within the crate.
  
  
  
  
132mm Rocket, AP, Model RBS-132
  
  
This armor-piercing rocket was designed primarily to be launched from the RO-132 aircraft launcher; however, it also may be launched from the M-13, a 16-rocket truck-mounted ground launcher.  The RBS-132 armor-piercing rocket is designed for fire against armored targets.  It is designed to penetrate armor up to 75mm (3 inches) thick.  During World War II the Soviets used this rocket successfully against German armor.
  
This rocket, 59.4 inches in length, consists of a warhead, a motor body, and a tail unit with stabilizer fins.  Studs are threaded into each end of the motor body to guide the rocket along the slotted launcher rail.  The RBS-132 rocket differs from the RBS-82 in size, weight, and method of igniting the propellant charge; in other respects the two rockets are identical.  The TNT-filled warhead has a thick-walled, bluntly rounded ogive and a flat nose to prevent ricocheting.  The forward end of the warhead is fitted with a metal or plastic ballistic cap.  The AV-96 impact fuze used with this rocket is seated in a threaded well in the base of the warhead.
  
The motor body is filled with seven powder sticks and an igniter of black powder.  The PP-4 flash cartridges located in the forward end of the motor body activate the igniter, which in turn ignites the propellant charge.  The motor body is threaded into the base plate of the warhead.  The nozzle assembly is threaded into the rear of the motor body.  Each of the four stabilizing fins is constructed of two pieces of sheet metal, which are welded together, slotted, and welded to the metal cone covering the nozzle.
  
  
  
Characteristics
Caliber: 132mm (5.2 in)
Total weight of rocket: 51kg (112.2 lbs)
Weight of warhead: 30.5kg (67.2 lbs)
Weight of propellant: 7.2kg (15.84 lbs)
Type of warhead filler: TNT
Weight of warhead filler: 1.35kg (2.97 lb)
Maximum velocity: 320 m/s (1,050 fps)
Maximum range: 7km (7,700 yards)
  
  
Packaging
  
 (No Illustration Available) 
  
This armor-piercing rocket is crated (with fuze) at the munitions plant.  The combustion chambers are armed with PP-4 flash cartridges.  Accordingly, this rocket is shipped as a complete round.  The rocket is covered with grease as a protection from corrosion and rust.
  
Crates are marked with a tag identifying the lot number of the shipment, the year of manufacture, the manufacturing plant, and the number of rockets contained within the crate.
  
  
  
  
  
300mm Rocket, HE, Model TS-16
    
   
 This high-explosive rocket is one of the early types of heavy rockets designed by the Soviets.  It can be fired from its packing crate, which is placed on the four-round portable launcher, M-30, now obsolete.  The rocket is guided on the launcher rail by the longitudinal slats of the packing crate; therefore, no guide studs are necessary.  The TS-16 rocket is used for blast effect on ground targets at close range.

This rocket, 56 inches in length, consists of a nose-fuzed warhead, a motor body similar to that of the 132mm rockets, and a tail unit with eight stabilizing fins.  The warhead, 300mm in diameter, consists of two half-cylinders welded together to form the central portion which in turn is welded to the cup-shaped from and rear ends.  A steel collar and a nose cap are welded to the assembly.  The motor body, 125mm in diameter, contains the propellent charge.  

Details regarding the internal parts are not known.  It is presumed that ignition is effected by means of two connected igniters, one at each end of the charge.  The method by which the igniters are made to function is not known.  The tail unit consists of eight hollow fluted fins, formed of pressed steel sheet metal, which are welded to the cone covering the nozzle and banded with a steel strip.



Characteristics
Caliber: 300mm (11.8 in)
Total weight of rocket: 81kg (178 lbs)
Weight of warhead: ?kg (? lbs)
Weight of propellant: 6.8kg (15 lbs)
Type of warhead filler: TNT
Weight of warhead filler: 33.6kg (73.9 lb)
Maximum velocity: ? m/s (? fps)
Maximum range: 2.5km (2,750 yards)



Packaging

(No Illustration Available)

Model TS-16 rockets are individually crated and are launched directly from the packing crate.  Packing crate specifications, therefore, coincide with the requirements of the M-30 portable launcher.  Each rocket is covered with grease as a protection against corrosion and rush.

Crates are marked with a tag identifying the lot number of the shipment, the year of manufacture, the manufacturing plant, and the number of rockets contained within the crate.





300mm Rocket, HE, Model TS-20

  
 This high-explosive rocket is one of the early types of heavy rockets designed by the Soviets.  It can be fired from its packing crate, which is placed on the four-round portable launcher, M-30, now obsolete.  The rocket is guided on the launcher rail by the longitudinal slats of the packing crate; therefore, no guide studs are necessary.  The TS-20 rocket is used for blast effect on ground targets at close range.

This rocket consists of a warhead, a motor body, and tail unit.  The rocket is easily identified by tits blunt, rounded warhead, 300mm in diameter, to which a long, tapered nose fuze is fixed.  The warhead consists of two steel cups welded together, a threaded collar, and a nose cap which is welded onto the assembly.  The motor body, 125mm in diameter, is the same as that of the 132mm rockets, and it contains the propellent charge.  
  
This rocket has one nozzle.  The tail fin assembly is the same as that of the TS-16 (eight hollow fluted fins, formed of pressed steel sheet metal, which are welded to the cone covering the nozzle and banded with a steel strip.)


Characteristics
Caliber: 300mm (11.8 in)
Total weight of rocket: 76.7kg (169 lbs)
Weight of warhead: ?kg (? lbs)
Weight of propellant: 7kg (15.56 lbs)
Type of warhead filler: TNT
Weight of warhead filler: 32.3kg (71 lb)
Maximum velocity: ? m/s (? fps)
Maximum range: 2.8km (3,080 yards)


Packaging

(No Illustration Available)

Model TS-20 rockets are individually crated and are launched directly from the packing crate.  Packing crate specifications, therefore, coincide with the requirements of the M-30 portable launcher.  Each rocket is covered with grease as a protection against corrosion and rush.

Crates are marked with a tag identifying the lot number of the shipment, the year of manufacture, the manufacturing plant, and the number of rockets contained within the crate.




300mm Rocket, HE, Model TS-31


This high-explosive rocket is believed to be the latest Soviet development in the field of heavy, long-range rockets.  The 12-rocket truck-mounted M-31 field rocket launcher is used to fire the Model TS-31.

The TS-31 high-explosive rocket consists of a warhead, motor body, and tail unit.  The warhead and tail unit are similar in appearance to those of the Model TS-20, but the motor appears to be longer and of a slightly larger diameter.  This rocket uses a delay nose fuze.  The ignition system appears to employ an electric primer located in the tail end of the motor.  For firing, two wandering leads passing from the primer through the nozzle arc connected to terminals on the launcher.  The tail unit, as in the Model TS-20, has eight banded fins around a single nozzle.

The TS-52, another Soviet high-explosive rocket, is identical to the TS-31 in construction except that, in addition to the axial nozzle, it has four equidistant metal tubular inserts around the circumference of the motor tube which house subsidiary nozzles.  These nozzles, sealed with mastic, seem to be inclined at an angle to the axis of the projectile, since they have the effect of rotating the projectile at a rate of 15 to 20 revolutions a second.  The maximum range of the TS-52 is 4000m, which is slightly less than that of the TS-31.  Like the TS-31, the TS-52 is fired from the truck-mounted M-31 launcher.


 
Characteristics
Caliber: 300mm (11.8 in)
Total weight of rocket: 91.7kg (202 lbs)
Weight of warhead: 55.4kg (120 lbs)
Weight of propellant: ?kg (? lbs)
Type of warhead filler: TNT
Weight of warhead filler: 29.1kg (64 lb)
Maximum velocity: 244 m/s (800 fps)(estimated)
Maximum range: 4.325km (4,730 yards)


Packaging

(No Illustration Available)

No packaging data are available on the 300mm Model TS-31 rocket. 

It is assumed that it is individually crated, as are other large-caliber rockets.

 

Monday, 16 November 2015

Imperial Japanese Navy Ammunition - 100mm and 120mm Projectiles (Part 2)

 
 
 
 
 
Imperial Japanese Navy Ammunition
 
 
 
 
 
 
12cm (120mm)(4.7in) Target Projectile
 
  
Weight of filled projectile (without fuze): 43.27 lbs
Weight of empty projectile: No Data
Weight stamped on rotating band (sample): 19.02kg (varies with individual projectiles)
 
Length of projectile (without fuze): 15.56 inches
Diameter at bourrelet: 1.56 inches
Width of rotating band: 2 inches
Radius of ogive: 4 cal
 
Filling: No Data
 
Fuzing: 30-second time fuze
 
Weapons used in:
-Type 11-year 12cm/45
-Type 3-year 12cm/45
 
 
 
 
 
 
12cm (120mm)(4.7in) Complete Round (Fixed)
    
 
 
Case:
-Length: 27.63 inches
-Diameter of base: 6.25 inches
-Material: Brass
-Weight (empty): 18.59 lbs
 
This case is crimped tightly into a groove in the base of the projectile by a single continuous crimp.
Propellant: 30 DC (Type 13 propellant): 12 lbs
 
Unperforated cylindrical sticks, approximately 3mm by 19.8 inches, graphited double-base powder.
 
In the H.E. rounds recovered, the propellant sticks are enclosed in a bag of heavy brownish silk.
 
In the incendiary shrapnel round the sticks of propellant were tied together and placed in the case without being enclosed in the customary coarse silk bag.  The latter arrangement may be a new trend not necessarily limited to the round in which it was first found.
 
Primer: Mk 2 case percussion primer, Model 4
 
Weapons used in: Type 10th year 12cm/45 dual-purpose gun
 
This weapon is a pedestal-mounted gun designed for anti-aircraft use aboard ship which has been found ashore either with or without a distinctive gun-house type of shield.  The gun is manually controlled.  The breech-block is the horizontal type sliding to the right.  This has been one of the most common and most effective Japanese land-based AA guns.
  
  
   
  
  
12cm (120mm)(4.7in) High-Explosive (Ordinary Mod 1)
   
 
Assembled round:
-Weight of complete round: 74.03 lbs
-Length of complete round (with Type 91 fuze): 41.75 inches (approximately)
 
Projectile:
-Weight of filled projectile (without fuze): 43.34 lbs
Weight of empty projectile: 39.38 lbs
-Weight stamped on rotating band (sample): 17.9kg (varies with individual projectiles)
 
Dimensions:
-Length of projectile (without fuze): 13.95 inches
-Diameter at bourrelet: 4.6 inches
-Distance from base to rotating band: 1.56 inches
-Width of rotating band: 1.9 inches
-Radius of ogive: 4 cal
 
Filling:
-Trinitroanisole (Type 91 explosive): 3.96 lbs
 
The explosive is cast directly in the projectile body.
 
Fuzing:
-Type 91 mechanical time fuze
-Type 88 point detonating fuze
 
Weapons used in: Type 10-year 12cm/45 dual-purpose gun
 
Remarks:
The base of the projectile is slightly recessed to receive a steel plate which is locked in by a steel ring.  This arrangement is presumed to be a seal to prevent the propellant gases entering possible flaws in the solid base of the projectile.  A similar feature is common in U.S. Army projectiles.
 
 
 
 
12cm (120mm)(4.7in) High-Explosive (Ordinary Mod 2)
 
 
Assembled round:
-Weight of complete round: 72.53 lbs
-Length of complete round (with Type 91 fuze): 41.75 inches (approximately)
 
Projectile:
-Weight of filled projectile (without fuze): 41.84 lbs
-Weight of empty projectile: 38.41 lbs
-Weight stamped on rotating band (sample): 17.46kg (varies with individual projectiles)
 
Dimensions:
-Length of projectile (without fuze): 13.95 inches
-Diameter at bourrelet: 4.6 inches
-Distance from base to rotating band: 1.56 inches
-Width of rotating band: 1.9 inches
-Radius of ogive: 4 cal
 
Filling: Cast picric acid (Shimose): 3.43 lbs
 
The charge consists of a single block of explosive cast and sealed in a waxed-paper container encased in a heavy cotton-flannel bag and sealed in the projectile with paraffin.
 
Fuzing:
-Type 91 mechanical time fuze
-Type 88 point detonating fuze
 
Weapons used in: Type 10th year 12cm/45 dual-purpose gun
 
 
 
 
12cm (120mm)(4.7in) Incendiary Shrapnel
 
 
Assembled round:
-Weight of complete round: 75.66 lbs
-Length of complete round (with Type 91 fuze): 41.15 inches (approximately)
 
Projectile:
-Weight of filled projectile (without fuze): 44.97 lbs
-Weight of empty projectile: 33.13 lbs
-Weight stamped on rotating band (sample): 15.06kg (varies with individual projectiles)
 
Dimensions:
-Length of projectile (without fuze): 13.95 inches
-Diameter at bourrelet: 4.6 inches
-Distance from base to rotating band: 1.56 inches
-Width of rotating band: 1.9 inches
-Radius of ogive: 4 cal
 
Filling:
-Cast picric acid (Shimose): 1.19 lbs
-Incendiary charge (W.P. and 48 steel pellets): 8.55 lbs
 
The explosive charge consists of a block of explosive cast and sealed in a waxed-paper container, encased in a heavy cotton-flannel bag and sealed in the nose of the projectile with paraffin.
 
Fuzing:
-Type 91 mechanical time fuze
-Type 88 point detonating fuze
 
Weapons used in: Type 10th year 12cm/45 dual-purpose gun
 
 
 
Next Time: 127mm Projectiles

Monday, 9 November 2015

Soviet Explosive Ordnance - 152mm and 203mm Projectiles

 
 
 
 
Soviet Explosive Ordnance
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
152mm Complete Round, Seperate (Cartridge Case) Loading, Frag-HE, VOF-534
 
 
This fragmentation high-explosive round is fired from the now obsolete 152mm howitzer M1909/30.  It can be fired from the 152mm howitzers M1938 and M1943, only in an emergency, and will give difficult case extraction.
 
The RGM and RG-6 fuzes are used with the OF-530 projectile in this round.  As a component of other complete rounds, however, the OF-530 also has been found with the RGM-2 and D-1 fuzes.
 
This complete round also may be found with a slightly shorter brass cartridge case, instead of the illustrated wrapped steel case.
 
 
 
Characteristics
Caliber: 152.4mm (6 in)
Weight of complete round: 45.4kg (99.9 lbs)
Weight of projectile, as fired: 40kg (88.2 lbs)
Weight of propellant, w/o igniter: 1.73kg (3.8 lbs)
Type of projectile filler: TNT
Weight of projectile filler: 6.95kg (15.28 lbs)
 
 
Packaging
 
 
This ammunition is packed in a one-round wooden box, as illustrated, with a gross weight of approximately 60kg (132 lbs).  The gross weight may be stenciled on the box in the form ЬРУТТО 60 КТ.
 
Projectiles and cartridge cases are also packed seperately: 2 projectiles to a wooden box, with a gross weight of approximately 93kg (205 lbs); and 8 cartridge cases to a wooden box, with a gross weight of about 69kg (152 lbs).  Cartridge cases also are packed three to a box.
 
Note.  The box measurements have not been verified.
 
 
 
 
 
152mm Complete Round, Seperate (Cartridge Case) Loading, Frag-HE, VOF-536
  
   
This fragmentation high-explosive round is fired from the 152mm howitzers M1938 (M-10) and M1943 (D-1), and from the now obsolete tank howitzer M1938/40.  The tank howitzer M1938/40 was mounted on the obsolete KV-2 heavy tank.
 
The RG-6, RGM, RGM-2, and D-1 fuzes are used with the OF-530 projectile in this round.  This complete round also may be found with a slightly shorter brass cartridge case, instead of the illustrated wrapped steel case.
 
The following complete rounds are variants of the illustrated round: VOF-536G, using an OF-530G projectile with a GVMZ fuze; and VOF-536AG, using an OF-530AG projectile with a GVMZ fuze.  These variants are basically the same as the VOF-536 and are fired from the same weapons.
 
 
 
Characteristics
Caliber: 152.4mm (6 in)
Weight of complete round: 47.2kg (104.3 lbs)
Weight of projectile, as fired: 40kg (88.2 lbs)
Weight of propellant, w/o igniter: 3.49kg (7.67 lbs)
Type of projectile filler: TNT
Weight of projectile filler: 6.95kg (15.28 lbs)
 
 
 
Packaging
 
 
This ammunition is packed in a one-round wooden box, as illustrated, with a gross weight of approximately 60kg (132 lbs).
 
Projectiles and cartridge cases are also packed seperately: 2 projectiles to a wooden box, with a gross weight of approximately 93kg (205 lbs); and 8 cartridge cases to a wooden box, with a gross weight of about 69kg (152 lbs). Cartridge cases also are packed three to a box.
 
Note. The box measurements have not been verified.
 
 
 
 
 
152mm Complete Round, Seperate (Cartridge Case) Loading, Frag-HE, VOF-545
 
   
This fragmentation high-explosive round is fired from the now obsolete 152mm gun M1910/34, from the standard 152mm gun-howitzer M1937 (ML-20), and from the 152mm self-propelled gun M1937/43 (ML-20S).  The self-propelled gun M1937/43 (ML-20S) is the main armament of the standard JSU-152 self-propelled weapon, and also the earlier SU-152.
 
The RGM, RGM-2, and D-1 fuzes are used with the OF-540 projectile in this round.
 
The following complete rounds are variants of the illustrated round: VOF-545U, using an OF-540 projectile with an RGM, RGM-2, or D-1 fuze; VOF-545A, using an OF-530A projectile with an RG-6, RGM, RGM-2, or D-1 fuze; and VOF-545G, using an OF-530 projectile with an RG-6, RGM, RGM-2, or D-1 fuze.  These variants are basically the same as the VOF-545 and are fired from the same weapons.
 
 
Characteristics
Caliber: 152.4mm (6 in)
Weight of complete round: 59.88kg (131.74 lbs)
Weight of projectile, as fired: 43.56kg (95.83 lbs)
Weight of propellant, w/o igniter: 7.72kg (16.98 lbs)
Type of projectile filler: TNT
Weight of projectile filler: 6.25kg (13.75 lbs)
 
 
Packaging
  
   
This ammunition is packed in a one-round wooden box, with a gross weight of about 71kg (156 lbs).
 
Note. The box measurements in the above drawing have not been verified.
 
 
  
 
 
152mm Complete Round, Seperate (Cartridge Case) Loading, HE, VF-534
 
  
This high-explosive round is fired from the now obsolete 152mm howitzer M1909/30, and may, in an emergency, also be fired from the 152mm howitzers M1938 and M1943.  However, when fired from the latter weapons, it will give difficult case extractions.  The projectile has a relatively thin-walled casing and large bursting charge.  The illustrated round gives a more powerful blast effect, but less fragmentation than the VOF-534.
 
The F-533 projectile in this round uses the UGT-2 (or, with supplementary booster, the RG-6 or RGM) fuze.  Cartridge cases for this high-explosive round may be either brass or wrapped steel.  The wrapped steel case is slightly longer than the brass case.
 
The following complete rounds are variants of the illustrated round:  VF-534U, using an F-533U projectile; VF-534K, using an F-533K projectile; VF-534L, using an F-533L projectile; VF-534M, using an F-533M projectile; VF-534N, using an F-533N projectile; and VF-534F, using an F-533F projectile.  The UGT-2 or, with supplementary booster, the RG-6 or RGM fuze is used in all of these rounds except the VF-534F, which is equipped with an AD, AD-2, or ADN fuze.  These variants are basically the same as the VF-534, and are fired from the same weapon.
 
 
 
Characteristics
Caliber: 152.4mm (6 in)
Weight of complete round: 45.9kg (101 lbs)
Weight of projectile, as fired: 40.5kg (89.1 lbs)
Weight of propellant, w/o igniter: 1.72kg (3.8 lbs)
Type of projectile filler: TNT
Weight of projectile filler: 8.91kg (19.62 lbs)
 
 
Packaging
 

 
This ammunition is packed in a one-round wooden box, as illustrated, with a gross weight of approximately 60kg (132 lbs).
 
Projectiles and cartridge cases are also packed seperately: 2 projectiles to a wooden box, with a gross weight of approximately 93kg (205 lbs); and 8 cartridge cases to a wooden box, with a gross weight of about 69kg (152 lbs).
 
Note. The box measurements have not been verified.
 
 
 
 
152mm Complete Round, Seperate (Cartridge Case) Loading, SAP-HE, "MORSKOY"
 
   
This Naval semi-armor-piercing high-explosive round is fired from the 152mm howitzers M1938 (M-10) and M1943 (D-1), and from the now obsolete tank howitzer M1938/40.  The tank howitzer M1938/40 was mounted on the obsolete KV-2 heavy tank.  This round may be used against armored or reinforced-concrete targets.  Its projectile contains a relatively small explosive charge (about 6 percent by weight).
 
The KTMF fuze is used with the "Morskoy" projectile in this round.  Whether or not the "Morskoy" ("Naval") semi-armor-piercing high-explosive projectile has a code number is uncertain.  The same applies to the complete round of which the projectile is a part.
 
In order to show clearly that the Zh-536M charge is intended for the "Morskoy" projectile, the reinforced cover in the cartridge case and the bottom of the projectile are painted white or covered with a white paper disk.  Special range scales must be used when firing the round.
 
Note.  The symbols "МГ Vo=432" on the cartridge case in the above illustration signify "Muzzle Velocity = 432 meters per second."
 
 
 
Characteristics
Caliber: 152.4mm (6 in)
Weight of complete round: 57.23kg (125.9 lbs)
Weight of projectile, as fired: 51.07kg (112.35 lbs)
Weight of propellant, w/o igniter: 2.06kg (4.53 lbs)
Type of projectile filler: ? (High Explosive)
Weight of projectile filler: 3.15kg (6.93 lbs)
 
 
Packaging
   
 
This ammunition is packed in a one-round wooden box.  Projectiles and cartridge case are also packed seperately, two projectiles or eight cartridge cases to a wooden box.
 
Note.  The box measurements given in the above drawing have not been verified.  Whether or not a complete round code number appears on the packing box is uncertain.
 
 
 
 
 
152mm Complete Round, Seperate (Cartridge Case) Loading, CP, VG-534
 
 
This concrete-piercing round is fired from the now obsolete 152mm howitzer M1909/30, and may, in an emergency, also be fired from the 152mm howitzers M1938 and M1943, in which weapons it will give difficult case extractions.  This round is used primarily against concrete and reinforced-concrete fortifications.  The projectile is made of heat-treated steel and contains a bursting charge weighing 7 to 18 percent of the total projectile weight.
 
The KTD fuze is used with the G-530 projectile in this round.  This complete round may also be found with a slightly longer wrapped steel cartridge case, instead of the illustrated brass case.
 
 
 
Characteristics
Caliber: 152.4mm (6 in)
Weight of complete round: 45.4kg (99.9 lbs)
Weight of projectile, as fired: 40kg (88.2 lbs)
Weight of propellant, w/o igniter: 1.73kg (3.8 lbs)
Type of projectile filler: TNT
Weight of projectile filler: 5.1kg (11.25 lbs)
 
 
Packaging
 
   
This ammunition is packed in a one-round wooden box, as illustrated, with a gross weight of approximately 60kg (132 lbs).
   
Projectiles and cartridge cases are also packed seperately: 2 projectiles to a wooden box, with a gross weight of approximately 93kg (205 lbs); and 8 cartridge cases to a wooden box, with a gross weight of about 69kg (152 lbs).
 
Note. The box measurements have not been verified.
 
 
 
 
 
152mm Complete Round, Seperate (Cartridge Case) Loading, CP, VG-536
 
  
This concrete-piercing round is fired from the 152mm howitzers M1938 (M-10) and M1943 (D-1), and frmo the now obsolete 152mm tank howitzer M1938/40.  The tank howitzer M1938/40 was mounted on the obsolete KV-2 heavy tank.  This round is primarily used against concrete and reinforced-concrete fortifications.  The projectile is made of heat-treated steel and contains a bursting charge weighing 7 to 18 percent of the total projectile weight.
 
The KTD fuze is used with the G-530 projectile in this round.  This complete round also may be found with a slightly longer wrapped steel cartridge case, instead of the illustrated brass case.
 
 
 
Characteristics
Caliber: 152.4mm (6 in)
Weight of complete round: 47.61kg (104.74 lbs)
Weight of projectile, as fired: 40kg (88.2 lbs)
Weight of propellant, w/o igniter: 3.49kg (7.67 lbs)
Type of projectile filler: TNT
Weight of projectile filler: 5.1kg (11.25 lbs)

 
Packaging
 

 
This ammunition is packed in a one-round wooden box, as illustrated, with a gross weight of approximately 60kg (132 lbs).  The packing box measurements given above have not been verified. 
Projectiles and cartridge cases are also packed seperately: 2 projectiles to a wooden box, with a gross weight of approximately 93kg (205 lbs); and 8 cartridge cases to a wooden box, with a gross weight of about 69kg (152 lbs).
 
Note.  The second propellant data line "12/7 CB 11/35 T" shown on the cartridge case of this round normally would appear just below the first propellant data line on the packing box.  It has been omitted in the above drawing because of insufficient space.
 
 
 
 
152mm Complete Round, Seperate (Cartridge Case) Loading, CP, VG-545
 
   
This concrete-piercing round is fired from the 152mm gun M1910/34, from the 152mm gun-howitzer M1937 (ML-20), and from the 152mm self-propelled gun M1937/43 (ML-20S).   The M1910/34 is obsolete, but the gun-howitzer M1937 (ML-20) is standard equipment in the Soviet Army and has been furnished in considerable quantities to many of the Satellite countries.  The self-propelled gun M1937/43 (ML-20S) is the main armament of the standard JSU-152 self-propelled weapon, and also the earlier SU-152.
 
This round is used primarily against concrete and reinforced-concrete fortifications.  The projectile is made of heat-treated steel and contains a bursting charge weighing 7 to 18 percent of the total projectile weight.
 
The KTD fuze is used with the G-530 projectile in this round.  The G-540 projectile with the KTD fuze also may be used as a component of this round.
 
Note.  For purposes of illustration, the fuze nomenclature has been show on the side of the fuze; in reality, it is stamped on the base of the fuze.
 
 
 
Characteristics
Caliber: 152.4mm (6 in)
Weight of complete round: 56.32kg (123.92 lbs)
Weight of projectile, as fired: 40kg (88.2 lbs)
Weight of propellant, w/o igniter: 7.72kg (16.98 lbs)
Type of projectile filler: TNT
Weight of projectile filler: 5.1kg (11.25 lbs)

 
Packaging
  

 
This ammunition is packed in a one-round wooden box, with a gross weight of about 68.5kg (151 lbs). The gross weight may be stenciled on the box in the form ЬРУТТО 68 КТ.
 
Note. The box dimensions given in the above illustration have not been verified.
 
 
 
 
 
152mm Complete Round, Seperate (Cartridge Case) Loading, Shrapnel, VSh-534T
 
   
This ball shrapnel round is fired from the now obsolete 152mm howitzer M1909/30.  It may also be fired, but only in an emergency, from the 152mm howitzers M1938 and M1943, in which weapons it will give difficult case extractions.  The lethal effect is produced by means of shrapnel balls, usually of a lead and antimony composition, which are expelled from the body of the projectile by the explosion of the bursting charge.
 
The 45-sec and T-6 fuzes are apparently interchangeable in the Sh-501T projectile of this round.  The 45-sec fuze is used with one adapter, and the T-6 fuze, as shown in the above illustration, with two adapters.  The T-6 fuze is shown without a cap; however, a fuze cap is used to protect the fuze prior to preparation for firing.
 
The cartridge case for this round may be either brass or wrapped steel.  The brass case is slightly shorter than the steel case.
 
The complete round VSh-534, using the Sh-501 projectile with a 45-sec (with one adapter) or T-6 fuze (with two adapters), is a variant of the illustrated round.  Like the VSh-534T, it may be found with either a wrapped steel or a slightly shorter brass cartridge case.  It is basically the same as the VSh-534T and is fired from the same weapon.
 
Note. The cartridge case illustrated was manufactured by the Germans for use in captured Soviet Weapons.
 
 
 
 
Characteristics
Caliber: 152.4mm (6 in)
Weight of complete round: 51.7kg (113.74 lbs)
Weight of projectile, as fired: 46.3kg (101.8 lbs)
Weight of propellant, w/o igniter: 1.72kg (3.8 lbs)
Type of projectile filler: Ball shrapnel and explosive
Weight of projectile filler: 0.5kg (1.1 lbs)

  
Packaging
  

  
This ammunition is packed in a one-round wooden box, as illustrated, with a gross weight of approximately 60kg (132 lbs).
 
Projectiles and cartridge cases are also packed seperately: 2 projectiles to a wooden box, with a gross weight of approximately 93kg (205 lbs); and 8 cartridge cases to a wooden box, with a gross weight of about 69kg (152 lbs).
 
Note. The box measurements have not been verified.
 
 
 
 
 
 
203mm Complete Round, Seperate (Powder Bag) Loading, CP, VG-625
 
   
This concrete-piercing round is fired from the 203mm howitzer M1931 (B-4).  This weapon is the principal standard heavy howitzer of the Soviet Army, and has also been found in Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, and Albania.  This round is used against armored, concrete, and reinforced-concrete fortifications.  Projectiles are heat-treated and contain an explosive charge weighing 7 to 18 percent of the total projectile weight.
 
The KTD fuze is used with the G-620 projectile in this round.
 
No cartridge case is used for this round.  The full propellant charge is contained in a cloth bag, as shown above; within this bag are an ignited, a base charge, and six equal increment charges, each in an individual powder bag.
 
The VG-625U complete round, using a G-620 projectile with a KTD fuze, is a variant of the illustrated round.  It is fired from the same weapon and, except for differences in the propellant charges, is identical with the VG-625.
 
 
 
Characteristics
Caliber: 203.2mm (8 in)
Weight of complete round: 115.5kg (254.1 lbs)
Weight of projectile, as fired: 100kg (220.46 lbs)
Weight of propellant, w/o igniter: 14.97kg (32.94 lbs)
Type of projectile filler: TNT
Weight of projectile filler: 15.36kg (33.8 lbs)
 
 
Packaging
   
   
The projectiles of 203mm caliber and larger are usually packed individually in crates made of wooden laths nailed to wooden end-pieces and reinforced with strapping.  This type of packaging is usually unpainted, but data descriptive of the contents are stenciled on the outside of the package.
 
Propellent charges are packed in metal-lined boxes, each box containing six charges.
  
 
 
 
Next Time:  Russian Rockets!

Sunday, 8 November 2015

Soviet Explosive Ordnance - 26mm Pyrotechnics

Soviet Explosive Ordnance
 
 
 
 
 
The Soviets are known to have both ground and aircraft types of illuminant and signal pyrotechnics, in variety.
 
The Soviet Army uses pyrotechnic signals which are very similar in appearance and operation to the "Very" signals which formerly were used by the United States Army.  These signals, which are fired from a regular pyrotechnic pistol, look like a standard shotgun shell; they have a brass base, a wrapped paper body, and a ferrous metal or cardboard closing disk known as the "identification top."  The signal cartridge body is usually tan or slate in color. 
 
The identification top is painted to correspond to the color of the stars in the cartridge, and it is embossed with either dots, bars, triangles, squares, or V's to signify the number of stars the signal will produce.   This painting and embossing of the identification top form a code for positive identification of the signal cartridge during day or night operations.
 
Stenciled markings on one side of the body of the signal cartridges indicate the lot number, date of assembly, and the factory number.
 
These signals are used primarily as visual signalling devices, rather than as illuminating devices, and may appear in the form of colored lights or colored smoke.  They are 26mm in caliber and vary in length from approximately three inches to approximately five inches, depending upon whether two, three, or five stars are contained within the cartridge.
 
Packing methods used by the Soviets for these signal cartridges are sound.  The cartridges are usually packed in hermetically sealed metal containers within wooden boxes.
 
 
 
26mm Signal Cartridges - I
 
 
The 26mm signal cartridges are used primarily as visual signalling devices, and they are fired from pyrotechnic pistols.  The cartridge has a brass base and a wrapped paper body on which printed markings appear.  These markings indicate the lot number, date of assembly, and factory number.
 
The top disk of each cartridge is painted and embossed, to aid in day-or-night identification.
 
The key to the Soviet Code for signal cartridges is not known at this time; however, the above-illustrated cartridges are tentatively identified as follows:
 
1. Yellow - Single Star
2. Green - Single Star
3. Red - Single Star
4. Green - Type Unknown
 
The stampings on the brass base indicate the factory number and the date of manufacture of the cartridge case.
 
 
 
Characteristics
Caliber: 26mm (1.02 in)
Weight of cartridge: 56.83g (877 gr)
 
Color:
Cartridge 1: Yellow
Cartridge 2: Green
Cartridge 3 : Red
Cartridge 4: Green
 
Type:
Cartridge 1, 2, and 3: Single Star
Cartridge 4: Unknown
 
Burning Time:
Cartridge 1: Unknown
Cartridge 2: 8 seconds
Cartridge 3: 12 seconds
Cartridge 4: Unknown
 
Method of Actuation: Fire from pyrotechnic pistol
 
 
Packaging
 
 
The illustrated packing box has a capacity of 400 red signal cartridges.  Within the box are four hermetically sealed cans, each containing 100 cartridges.  Markings appear on each can, as well as on the box.
 
 
 
 
26mm Signal Cartridges - II

 
The following tentative identification has been given the above-illustrated cartridges:
 
1. White - Type Unknown
2. Yellow - Type Unknown
3. Green - Double Star
 
 
Characteristics
Caliber: 26mm (1.02 in)
Weight of cartridge: Unknown
 
Color:
Cartridge 1: White
Cartridge 2: Yellow
Cartridge 3: Green
 
Type:
Cartridge 1, and 2: Unknown
Cartridge 3: Double Star
 
Burning Time:
Cartridge 1, 2, and 3: Unknown
 
Method of Actuation: Fire from pyrotechnic pistol
  
Packaging
 

 
The illustrated packing box has a capacity of 520 green, double-star signal cartridges. Within the box are four hermetically sealed cans, each containing 130 cartridges. Markings appear on each can, as well as on the box.