Monday, 31 October 2016

Italian Explosive Ordnance - Hand and Mortar Grenades






Italian Explosive Ordnance








Hand and Mortar Grenades



 Italian high-explosive anti-personnel hand grenades are almost totally of the "offensive" type.  Although the loading factor is usually low, the grenade bodies are not adapted for maximum fragmentation.  The anti-tank grenades are adaptations of the anti-personnel grenades with an additional charge.  There is no evidence of the use of shaped charges in Italian anti-tank grenades.  Likewise, the chemical grenades that are not frangible are made of adapted anti-personnel grenade bodies and mechanisms with a chemical filler.  The Italians did not make use of the rifle grenade, but did use a small mortar, not unlike a grenade projector, to fire a mortar grenade.

Italian grenades are of the impact type.  They incorporate an "all-ways" acting fuze which arms in flight.  For the reason, grenades in the armed position are very sensitive.


 



Breda Hand Grenades Mod 35, Mod 40, and Mod 42


Mod 35
Overall length: 3.8 inches
Maximum diameter: 2.1 inches
Type of filling: TNT
Weight of filling: 2.1 ounces
Total weight: 7 ounces
 
Mod 40
Overall length: 9.5 inches
Maximum diameter: 2.1 inches
Type of filling: TNT
Weight of filling: 2.1 ounces
Total weight: Unknown
 
Mod 42
Overall length: 12 inches
Maximum diameter: 3.62 inches
Type of filling: TNT
Weight of filling: Unknown
Total weight: 2.75 pounds

Color: Red body, with Black safety cap
Description: Types Mod 40 and Mod 42 incorporate the M35 in their construction.  The Mod 40 is a Mod 35 with a hollow wooden handle attached, and the Mod 42 is a Mod 40 with a light metal globe 3 and 5/8 inches in diameter screwed onto the bottom to give an additional charge for anti-tank use.  The other types are for anti-personnel use.

The Mod 35 grenade is longer and thinner than the S.R.C.M. 35 grenade and has hemispherical ends.  It consists of a thin aluminum case in two parts.  The safety strip is in the form of an elongated U and passes through the grenade on either side of the channel-shaped safety device.  The ends of the strip pass into slots in the top of a loose metal piece which is retained by a pin in the large safety cap (of light aluminum).  The striker pin is attached to the heavy head.

Around the detonator tube is a perforated metal tube attached to the striker head.  The spring maintains the striker away from the detonator until impact.

Operation: On withdrawal of the safety strip, the safety cap is freed.  At one end it is attached to a brass strip which is wound twice around the head of the grenade, and attached at the other end to the safety device.  During flight, the safety cap pulls this out, arming the grenade so that it fires on impact.







Hand Grenade O.T.O. Mod 35
 

Overall length: 3.4 inches
Maximum diameter: 2.1 inches
Type of filling: TNT
Weight of filling: 2.5 ounces
Total weight: 7.4 ounces

Color: Red body, with Black safety cap
Description: This grenade is composed of a very light casing of metal, made in two parts: a flat lower cylinder, and, screwed to this, a cylinder of smaller diameter which has a truncated cone-shaped top.

The safety pin consists of two long brass strips and one short brass strip.  The two longer strips pass one on either side of the base of the channel-shaped safety device, and the short strip engages and looks in a slot in the body of the grenade.  The striker is riveted to the cap, the top of which is shaped to take the heavy metal ball.  The explosive is contained in a metal box which has a well in it for the detonator.  A spring holds the striker away from the detonator.

Operation: On withdrawal of the pin, the safety cap (of light aluminum) is freed so that it becomes disengaged during flight.  The cap is hinged and by its weight withdraws the channel-shaped safety device.  The grenade is then armed to fire upon impact.  In trial with this grenade, no ill effects were felt by men standing 25 yards from the burst.  There is practically no fragmentation, and the blast is only fair.






Hand Grenade S.R.C.M. Mod 35
 

Overall length: 3.1 inches
Maximum diameter: 2.5 inches
Type of filling: TNT
Weight of filling: 1.5 ounces
Total weight: 7 ounces

Color: Red with unpainted safety cap
Description: The outer case is in two parts which screw together.  Both parts are stamped to form a seating for the collar, and the upper part is cut to take the safety bars.  Internally the grenade consists of two metal collars and two light metal cylinders.  The striker is riveted to the head of the open cylinder, around the outside of which is wound some coarse wire to form the metal loading.  The lower cylinder is a loose fit inside the upper one, and carries the explosive charge, a pressed block of impure TNT recessed to take the detonator.  The cap contains the helical spring which holds the striker and detonator apart.

The safety strip passes over the ring and is bent up under it, so securing the safety cap (of light aluminum) to which the ring is attached.  Between two safety strips is an elliptical metal strip, with an eccentric hole, whose ends are joined by a spring passing around the side of a cylinder.  This acts as a safety shutter, and on impact one end jerks forward to a position in which the striker is centrally behind the hole in the shutter to fire the detonator.  Two steel collars rest in recesses in the cylinders.  If the grenade falls on its side, these are jerked from their seatings and force the cylinders together.

Operation: When the safety pin is withdrawn, the safety cap is free to disengage during flight and withdraw the second safety strip.  The delay in arming is effected by means of a short chain, attached at one end to the safety cap and at the other to a safety strip.  The bight of the chain is wound once around the stop.  On impact, the safety shutter moves into alignment, the cylinders come together, and the striker impinges upon the detonator.  There is only slight fragmentation from this grenade.







P.C.R. Grenade
 

Overall length: 5 and 1/2 inches
Maximum diameter: 2 and 1/2 inches

Color: Unpainted aluminum
Description: The grenade body is of three parts, the two end caps threading into the middle section.  Two shallow cones of aluminum, each with a striker and the center of a four-pring stirrup spring at its apex, are contained in a 1 and 1/2 inch diameter cylinder held in the middle section by two collars.  One of the cones is at each end of this cylinder and, in the space formed, is a heavy lead 1 inch in diameter.  The action of the ball in this cavity makes the fuze "all-ways" acting.  The detonators are held in two cylindrical tubes, one attached to the center of each end cap.  The end cap is closed by a metal cover, and the explosive filling is contained there-in. 

The first safety strip consist of a rubber pull tab and a one-piece U-shaped bar of light, soft metal.  Each end of this passes through an opening in the middle section, between a striker and a detonator, to protrude slightly through the opposite side of the body.  The second safety strip is attached to the hinged wing-shaped safety cap which passes around the body over the middle section.  There are two bars, each to pass through the body and cover a striker.  Thus, each striker is held <?> its detonator by a stirrup spring and two safety bars.

Operation: The first safety strip is removed before throwing, and, when the grenade is thrown, the wing-shaped safety cap will open and pull off, activating the second safety strip.  Then each striker is <?> from its detonator by the light spring only and the grenade will fire on impact.
 
Note: <?> due to faded pages and missing words







"L" Type Anti-Tank Hand Grenade
 

Overall length: 15 inches
Maximum circumference: 14 and 1/4 inches
Type of filling: TNT
Length of handle: 10 and 3/4 inches
Total weight: 4 and 1/2 pounds

Color: Red body, unpainted handle
Description: This grenade consists of a metal casing with a wooden throwing handle.  A tab protrudes from the top of the casing.  Pulling this tab removes a safety strip which, while in, blocks the striker from the detonator.  There is also a small metal strip protruding from the base of the handle.  This strip is held in position by a wire in the side of the handle.  The wire is held in position by a piece of tape secured by a pin.  The firing mechanism is always-acting, much like the O.T.O. Mod 35 Hand Grenade.

Operation: Before throwing this grenade, remove the safety strip attached to the tab.  Then, holding the handle firmly, remove the pin.  Be sure that the wire is held securely.  When the grenade is thrown, the wire is released, this releases the small metal strip, which then moves over into a position so that the hole in it is in alignment with the striker and detonator.  On impact, the striker and detonator are brought together, firing the grenade.

Remarks: This grenade was designed for use against vehicles and tanks.  The grenade should be thrown at a distance of 15 to 20 meters from the target and cover should be taken as protection against fragmentation.  In the armed position, the grenade is very sensitive.







Breda Mortar Grenade
 

Overall length: 5 and 1/4 inches
Maximum circumference: 1 and 3/4 inches
Type of filling: TNT

Color: Red body, black tail
Description: The body of this grenade is steel, while the tail is of aluminum alloy.  The two are screwed together.  The steel cap is attached to a steel strip, and a double brass safety strip holds the cap in place.  The safety strip passes through two slots near the head of the grenade, and lies in the recess of the zinc striker holder.  The tail of the H.E. grenade is painted red to distinguish it from practice and instructional grenades, which have yellow and unpainted aluminum tails, respectively.  It is fired from the 45mm Light Mortar, Model 35 "Brixia".

Operation: On withdrawing the safety strip, the cap is freed; and, on firing, the setback causes the safety device to move down into its slot.  This safety device consists of a short brass rod which projects into one of the holes in the disc and holds the disc from rotating.  Four light brass spring strips hold the rod in the "setback" position.  At the same time, the collar also sets back onto the firing-cap holder, being held in position by the detent spring.  The collar and holder then act as one, and can move under the influence of the spring. 

During flight, the disc rotates as air passes through the oblique holes near the edge of the disc.  The striker, being prevented from rotating by the square shape of the portion moving in a square-shaped channels is thus moved forward toward the detonator.  The grenade is then armed.  On impact, the detonator slides forward on the spring and hits the striker.







Incendiary Bottle Grenade
 

Bottle: 1-liter size
Filling: Inflammable liquid

Color: Transparent
Description: The incendiary grenade is made from an ordinary one-liter glass bottle, fitted with a metal pressure cap, and containing an inflammable liquid.  A fuse match, protected by a canvas cover, is fixed to the side of the bottle by two rings of cord.  To the top of the fuse is attached a fine cord, which, on being pulled, fires the fuse.  To avoid accidental ignition by a chance drawing of the cord, the cord has a small wooden handle and is fixed to the neck of the bottle by a ring of thread.

Operation: Just before use, the wooden handle is freed by a light pull on the ring of thread which is securing it to the neck of the bottle.  The handle is then given a sharp pull, and a small flame will appear at the lower end of the fuse.  The bottle should then be thrown with force against the target.  If the bottle is not thrown immediately, it may burst before reaching the target.  A minimum of two seconds is given between the lighting of the fuse and the bursting of the bottle.  The Italians consider the grenade to be a good weapon for defense against AFV's at close quarters.








Smoke Hand Grenades
 
Types:
S.R.C.M. Model 35 F
O.T.O. Model 35 F
Breda Model 35 F

Markigns: Top part red; lower part black; white letter F (Fumogeno) on black background
Description: These grenades are similar in construction to their H.E. equivalents, but contain a liquid smoke filling mixture of chlorsulfonic acid and sulphur trioxide.  They produce a fairly dense white smoke cloud of two to three yards front, but cannot be used if wind strength is above 7 mph.

Operation: Same as H.E. equivalents.





Smoke Incendiary Hand Grenades
 
Types:
S.R.C.M. Model 35 FI
O.T.O. Model 35 FI
Breda Model 35 FI

Markigns: Top part red; lower part black; white letter FI on black background
Description: Correspond to H.E. equivalents, with explosive filling replaced by a charge of white phosphorus.  The burst creates a dense white smoke covering an area about 11 by 4 yards.

Operation: Same as H.E. equivalents.



Practice and Drill Grenades




1. The grenade containing a small charge is white, with a 1/2 inch red band around the place where the two parts of the body join.

2. The instruction or drill grenade is unpainted or black.

3. The practice grenade with a smoke filler is yellow.

S.R.C.M. Mod 35 Practice Grenade is recognizable by six large holes cut in its body above and below the screw threads.  The lower cylinder containing the H.E. charge is replaced by a brass cylinder having a truncated conical bottom with four holes in it.  This cylinder holds a smoke producing charge in a celluloid container.  The shutter is simplified so that there is no "safe" position <?> impact.

Note: A word has been cut off on my text, where the <?> is.






Next Time: Italian Mines and Traps

Monday, 24 October 2016

Italian Explosive Ordnance - Cartridge Cases






Italian Explosive Ordnance








Cartridge Cases





 It is the Italian practice to have more than one weight for the normal charge for a particular equipment.  These are referred to as 1st, 2nd, and 3rd normal charge.  In terms of weight, these represent decreasing values.  The charge may be a flashless type or nonflashless.  A flashless charge is obtained by the inclusion of bags containing potassium chloride.  Two types of marking and coloring systems were used.

The Old System had:

A. Colored rings on the base of the cartridge to refer to the propellent charge.

Red ---------- 1st normal charge
Blue ---------- 2nd normal charge
2 black rings ---------- 3rd normal charge
Red and White ----------- 1st flashless charge
Blue and White ----------- 2nd flashless charge
2 black half rings ---------- 3rd flashless charge
Green and White ----------- Special charge for star shells


B. Colored triangles on the base.

Black ---- 1st class condition
Green ---- Near end of its life
Yellow ---- Practice



C. Other marks

Green circle ---- AA
White ----- Star Shell
C.L. ----- Tracer fitted


On 76/17 and smaller calibers, there is insufficient space for complete rings and so color letters give details.

D. On the bags are the following general markings relating to propellent.

1. Initial of manufacturer
2. Lot and date of manufacture
3. Place and date of proof
4. Place and date of filling





The New System:

The type of charge is indicated by a number in brackets, as follows:

[1] - 1st normal charge
[2] - 2nd normal charge
[3] - 3rd normal charge

If the charge is flashless, there is a half black ring on the base.  A complete black ring indicates a special charge for light projectiles, usually a 3rd normal charge.

The following signs have indicated significance:

Black circle ----- AA
Black triangle ----- 1st class condition
Black square ----- 2nd class condition
Black diamond ----- Near end of life
Black star ----- Star shell
C.L. ----- Tracer fitted









75/13mm Mountain Gun Cartridge Case


Overall length: 129 mm
Overall diameter at mouth: 77.2 mm
Width of rim: 4 mm
Diameter at rim: 85 mm
Weight of empty case: 0.67 kilograms
Igniter: 10 g black powder
Primer: Percussion Primer M29 or M35








75/18mm Mountain Howitzer Cartridge Case


Overall length: 185 mm
Overall diameter at mouth: 78.5 mm
Width of rim: Unknown
Diameter at rim: 90.2 mm
Weight of empty case: 0.83 kilograms
Igniter: 10 g black powder
Primer: Percussion Primer M29 or M35




  
75/27mm Field Gun Cartridge Case


Overall length: 185.4 mm
Overall diameter at mouth: 78.5 mm
Width of rim: 3.6 mm
Diameter at rim: 90.2 mm
Weight of empty case: 0.835 kilograms
Igniter: 10 g black powder
Primer: Percussion Primer M29 or M35









75/32mm Light Field Gun Cartridge Case


Overall length: 334.1 mm
Overall diameter at mouth: 78.5 mm
Width of rim: 3.6 mm
Diameter at rim: 90.2 mm
Weight of empty case: 1.4 kilograms
Igniter: 10 g black powder










77/28mm Field Gun Cartridge Case


Igniter: 10 g black powder
Primer: Percussion Primer MO8 P.B. 29 or 35











100/17mm Light Field Howitzer Cartridge Case


Overall length: 132 mm
Overall diameter at mouth: 103.6 mm
Width of rim: 4 mm
Diameter at rim: 115 mm
Weight of empty case: 1.21 kilograms
Primer: Percussion Primer M29 or M35

Remarks: This cartridge case and loadings are also used for the 100/17mm Mountain Howitzer.










105/14mm Light Field Howitzer Cartridge Case


Overall length: 135 mm
Overall diameter at mouth: 110.9 mm
Diameter at rim: 122 mm
Weight of empty case: 1.76 kilograms
Igniter: 25 grams black powder
Primer: Percussion Primer M29 or M35





105/28mm Gun Cartridge Case
 

Overall length: 135 mm
Overall diameter at mouth: 110.9 mm
Diameter at rim: 122 mm
Weight of empty case: 1.76 kilograms
Igniter: 25 or 30 grams black powder with 5 grams of lead foil as a de-coppering charge
Primer: Percussion Primer M29 or M35

Remarks: Most cases for 105mm caliber guns are the same, but the propellent loading varies.  This same type of case and loading is used for the 105/32mm gun.







149/12mm Heavy Field Howitzer Cartridge Case


Overall length: 100 mm
Overall diameter at mouth: 157.2 mm
Diameter at rim: 171 mm
Weight of empty case: 1.8 kilograms
Igniter: 25 g black powder
Primer: Percussion Primer M29 or M35








149/13mm Heavy Field Howitzer Cartridge Case


Overall length: 221 mm
Overall diameter at mouth: 151.9 mm
Width of rim: 6 mm
Diameter at rim: 164.7 mm
Igniter: 25 g black powder
Primer: Percussion Primer M29 or M35








152/37mm Gun Cartridge Case


Overall length: 767 mm
Overall diameter at mouth: Unknown
Width of rim: Unknown
Diameter at rim: 180 mm
Weight of empty case: 9.72 kilograms
Igniter: 50 g black powder
Primer: Percussion Primer M35

Remarks: The charge of the propellent varies with the type of projectile used.










380/15mm Heavy Howitzer Cartridge Case


Overall length: 855 mm
Overall diameter at mouth: 390 mm
Width of rim: Unknown
Diameter at rim: 420 mm
Weight of empty case: 44 kilograms




Next Time: Italian Hand and Mortar Grenades

Monday, 17 October 2016

Italian Explosive Ordnance - 210mm to 420mm Projectiles






Italian Explosive Ordnance

  




210mm HE


Guns used in: 210/8mm Field Gun and 210/22mm Howitzer
Fuzing: Nose Percussion Fuze M17

Overall length (w/ fuze): 730.3 mm
Overall length (w/o fuze): 712 mm
Diameter at base: Unknown
Distance base to band: 25 mm
Width of band: 25 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: 209.3 mm
Type of filling: TNT or MAT or MBT
Weight of filling: 14.125 kilograms
Weight of loaded projectile: 100.5 kilograms
Booster used: No.4 M38








210mm HE (Cast Steel)


Guns used in: 210/8mm Field Gun
Fuzing: Nose Percussion Fuze M17

Overall length: 735 mm
Diameter at base: 200 mm
Distance base to band: 14.5 mm
Width of band: 25 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: 209.3 mm
Type of filling: TNT
Weight of filling: 11 kg to 14.7 kg
Weight of loaded projectile: 100 kg to 103.6 kg




  
210mm HE (Bomba)


Guns used in: 210/8mm Field Gun
Fuzing: Nose Percussion Fuze (Guerritore I.M35 or I.M38)
Overall length (w/o fuze): 776 mm
Diameter at base: 208 mm
Distance base to band: 107.5 mm
Width of band: 25 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: 209.5 mm
Type of filling: MST
Weight of filling: 21 kilograms
Weight of loaded projectile: 60.5 kilograms

Remarks: The projectile has a very unusual round base








210/22mm HE M35


Guns used in: 210/22mm Field Gun
Fuzing: Nose Percussion Fuze (Guerritore V.M38)

Overall length (w/ fuze): 851.2 mm
Overall length (w/o fuze): 820.2 mm
Diameter at base: 185 mm
Distance base to band: 102.5 mm
Width of band: 30 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: 209.4 mm
Type of filling: Amatol
Weight of filling: 18.59 kilograms
Weight of loaded projectile: 101.133 kilograms









260/9mm HE


Guns used in: 260/9mm Field Gun
Fuzing: Nose Percussion Fuze M17

Overall length (w/ nose plug): 953 mm
Diameter at base: Unknown
Distance base to band: 73 mm
Width of band: 34 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: Unknown
Type of filling: TNT
Weight of filling: 25.94 kilograms
Weight of loaded projectile: 219.1 kilograms
Booster used: No.4 M38








260/9mm HE (Cast Steel)


Guns used in: 260/9mm Field Gun
Fuzing: Nose Percussion Fuze M17

Overall length: 953 mm
Diameter at base: 256 mm
Distance base to band: 73 mm
Width of band: 34 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: Unknown
Type of filling: TNT
Weight of filling: 19.89 kilograms
Weight of loaded projectile: 222.7 kilograms
Booster Used: No.4 M38









305mm HE (Short)


Guns used in: 305/8mm Field Howitzer
Fuzing: Base Fuze M09

Overall length: 946 mm
Diameter at base: 203 mm
Distance base to band: 24 mm
Width of band: 57.5 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: 304.4 mm
Type of filling: TNT
Weight of filling: 32 kilograms
Weight of loaded projectile: 287 kilograms

Remarks: The projectile is similar to 305mm HE (Long)








305mm HE (Long)


Guns used in: 305/8mm Field Howitzer
Fuzing: Base Fuze M09

Overall length: 1130 mm
Diameter at base: 303 mm
Distance base to band: 24 mm
Width of band: 57.5 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: 304.4 mm
Type of filling: TNT
Weight of filling: 34.33 kilograms
Weight of loaded projectile: 380 kilograms




  
305mm HE (Long and Short Light Case)


Guns used in: 305/17mm Howitzer
Fuzing: Base Fuze M14 for 305/17

Overall length (short): 1148 mm
Overall length (long): 1183 mm
Diameter at base: 302.2 mm
Distance base to band: 56 mm
Width of band: 50.8 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: 303.5 mm
Type of filling: TNT

Weight of filling:
-Short: 33.6 kilograms
-Long: 38.32 kilograms

Weight of loaded projectile:
-Short: 348 kilograms
-Long: 350 kilograms









305mm HE (British Short and Long)


Guns used in: 305/17mm Howitzer

Fuzing:
-Short: British Nose Fuze No.101E
-Long: British Nose Fuze 450A or Italian M17

Overall length w/o fuze (short): 975.5 mm
Overall length w/o fuze (long): 1075.5 mm
Diameter at base: 301.3 mm
Distance base to band: 51 mm
Width of band: 76 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: Unknown
Type of filling: Probably TNT

Weight of filling:
-Short: 31.4 kilograms
-Long: 45 kilograms

Weight of loaded projectile:
-Short: 340.69 kilograms
-Long: 340.5 kilograms









305/17mm HE


Guns used in: 305/17mm Howitzer
Fuzing: Nose - Unknown

Overall length (w/ plug): 1151 mm
Diameter at base: 302.2 mm
Distance base to band: 55 mm
Width of band: 51.5 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: 303.8 mm
Type of filling: TNT
Weight of filling: 43.1 kilograms
Weight of loaded projectile: 348 kilograms
Booster used: No.4 M38








305/17mm HE (Heavy)


Guns used in: 305/17mm Howitzer
Fuzing: Base Fuze M14 for 305/17

Overall length: 1175 mm
Diameter at base: 302.2 mm
Distance base to band: 55 mm
Width of band: 51.5 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: 303.8 mm
Type of filling: TNT
Weight of filling: 19.145 kilograms
Weight of loaded projectile: 441 kilograms








305/17mm HE (Cast Steel)


Guns used in: 305/17mm Howitzer
Fuzing: Nose - Unknown

Overall length (w/o fuze): 1023.6 mm
Diameter at base: 302.4 mm
Distance base to band: 55 mm
Width of band: 51.5 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: 303.8 mm
Type of filling: MST
Weight of filling: 33.49 kilograms
Weight of loaded projectile: 328.5 kilograms
Booster used: No.4 M38





305/17mm HE (One Piece)


Guns used in: 305/17mm Howitzer
Fuzing: Nose Percussion Fuze M17

Overall length (w/o fuze): 1130 mm
Diameter at base: Unknown
Distance base to band: 177 mm
Width of band: 51.8 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: 303.52 mm
Type of filling: MST
Weight of filling: 46.125 kilograms
Weight of loaded projectile: 259 kilograms
Booster used: No.4 M38

Remarks: The projectile is of one-piece construction










380/15mm HE (Base Fuzed)


Guns used in: 380/15mm Heavy Howitzer
Fuzing: Base Fuze M16

Overall length: 1402 mm
Diameter at base: 378 mm
Distance base to 1st band: 25 mm
Distance base to 2nd band: 65 mm (approx.)
Width of 1st band: 33.6 mm
Width of 2nd band: 32.5 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: 379 mm
Type of filling: TNT
Weight of filling: 71.49 kilograms
Weight of loaded projectile: 750 kilograms
Booster used: No.4 M38








420mm HE (Short and Long)


Guns used in: 420/12mm Heavy Howitzer
Fuzing: Base - Unknown

Overall length (short): 1375 mm
Overall length (long): 1554 mm
Diameter at base: 485.9 mm
Distance base to 1st band: 25 mm
Distance base to 2nd band: 70 mm
Width of 1st band: 25 mm
Width of 2nd band: 40.5 mm
Type of filling: TNT


Diameter at bourrelet:
-Short: 418.8 mm
-Long: 418.7 mm

Weight of filling:
-Short: 75 kilograms
-Long: 90 kilograms

Weight of loaded projectile:
-Short: 800 kilograms
-Long: 1000 kilograms








240mm and 400mm (Bomba)


Guns used in: 240mm Mortar and 400mm Mortar

Fuzing:
-240mm: French type M35 I.T. or Nose Fuze M17 or I.M38
-400mm: French type M15 I.T.


Overall length (w/ fuze):
-240mm: 965 mm
-400mm: 1700 mm

 Length of body: 672 mm
Body diameter: 240mm
Type of filling: TNT or Amatol
Weight of filling: Unknown

Total weight:
-240mm: 65.5 kilograms
-400mm: 265 kilograms

Booster used: No.4 M38

Remarks: These mortar bombs are very similar to aircraft bombs.









Next Time: Italian Cartridge Cases

Monday, 10 October 2016

Italian Explosive Ordnance - 152mm Projectiles






Italian Explosive Ordnance

  




152mm HE


Guns used in: 152/37mm and 152/45mm Guns
Fuzing: Nose Percussion Fuze M17

Overall length (w/ fuze): 665.3 mm
Overall length (w/o fuze): 650 mm
Diameter at base: 151.2 mm
Distance base to band: 32 mm
Width of band: 21.5 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: 151.8 mm
Type of filling: TNT
Weight of filling: 5.52 kilograms
Weight of loaded projectile: 45.9 kilograms







152/13mm HE (Short)


Guns used in: 152/13mm Heavy Field Howitzer
Fuzing: Nose Percussion Fuzes British Nos. 101, 101E, 106, or 44

Overall length (w/ fuze): 522.5 mm
Overall length (w/o fuze): 471.5 mm
Diameter at base: 150.1 mm
Distance base to band: 31.5 mm
Width of band: 26.5 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: 151.4 mm
Type of filling: TNT
Weight of filling: 5.67 kilograms
Weight of loaded projectile: 45 kilograms

Remarks: The fuze is similar to 152/13mm (long) and is also British designed




  
152/13mm HE (Long)


Guns used in: 152/13mm Heavy Field Howitzer
Fuzing: Nose Percussion Fuzes British Nos. 101, 101E, 106, or 44

Overall length (w/ fuze): 582 mm
Overall length (w/o fuze): 531 mm
Diameter at base: 150.1 mm
Distance base to band: 21 mm
Width of band: 17 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: 152 mm
Type of filling: TNT
Weight of filling: 3.34 kilograms
Weight of loaded projectile: 45 kilograms

Remarks: This projectile is of British design and uses British fuzes.








152/37mm HE


Guns used in: 152/37mm Gun
Fuzing: Nose Percussion Fuze M17 (Guerritore) I.M35 m.c. or I.M38 m.c.

Overall length (w/ cap): 844 mm
Diameter at base: 150.9 mm
Distance base to 1st band: 25 mm
Distance base to 2nd band: 64 mm
Width of 1st band: 30 mm
Width of 2nd band: 35 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: 151.87 mm
Type of filling: Probably TNT
Weight of filling: 4.68 kilograms
Weight of loaded projectile: 54 kilograms

Remarks: The projectile has a ballistic cap and two rotating bands.








152/45-50mm H.E. (Base-Fuzed)


Guns used in: 152/45mm and 152/50mm Guns
Fuzing: Base Fuze M914

Overall length (w/ fuze): 599 mm
Diameter at base: 144.5 mm
Distance base to band: 35 mm
Width of band: 65 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: Unknown
Type of filling: TNT
Weight of filling: 3.75 kilograms
Weight of loaded projectile: 47 kilograms







152/32-45mm HE (Base-Fuzed)


Guns used in: 152/32mm and 152/45mm Guns
Fuzing: Base Fuze M914, M909K25, M911/917

Overall length: 545 mm
Diameter at base: 150.3 mm
Distance base to band: 32.4 mm
Width of band: 25 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: Unknown
Type of filling: TNT
Weight of filling: 3.351 kilograms
Weight of loaded projectile: 47 kilograms







152/37mm AP


Guns used in: 152/37mm Gun
Fuzing: Base Fuze M11 K.S.R.

Overall length: 519.6 mm
Diameter at base: 151.2 mm
Distance base to 1st band: 24 mm
Distance base to 2nd band: 63 mm
Width of 1st band: 30 mm
Width of 2nd band: 35 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: 151.8 mm
Type of filling: Unknown (The manual states 0.42 kg)
Weight of filling: Unknown, may be 0.42 kg
Weight of loaded projectile: 52.78 kilograms

Remarks: The projectile has a double rotating band and both piercing and ballistic caps.









Next Time: Italian 210mm to 420mm Projectiles

Monday, 3 October 2016

Italian Explosive Ordnance - 149mm Projectiles






Italian Explosive Ordnance

  




149/12mm HE (Short)


Guns used in: 149/12mm Heavy Field Gun
Fuzing: Nose Percussion Fuze M17 or (Guerritore) I.M35, I.M38, or I.M40

Overall length (w/ fuze): 599 mm
Overall length (w/o fuze): 584 mm
Diameter at base: 147.8 mm
Distance base to band: 38 mm
Width of band: 15 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: 148.5 mm

Type of filling: TNT or MAT-MBT

Weight of filling:
-TNT: 6.235 kilograms
-MAT: 3.73 kilograms
-MBT: 3.02 kilograms (The manual states 302 kg)

Weight of loaded projectile: 38.9 kilograms






149/12mm HE


Guns used in: 149/12mm and 149/13mm Heavy Field Howitzers
Fuzing: Nose Percussion Fuze M10 or M17

Overall length (w/ fuze): 677.3 mm
Overall length (w/o fuze): 659 mm
Diameter at base: 147.6 mm
Distance base to band: 38 mm
Width of band: 15 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: 148.5 mm

Type of filling: TNT or Pertile
Weight of filling: 7.525 kilograms
Weight of loaded projectile: 41.1 kilograms

Remarks: The projectile for the 149/13mm gun differs slightly since the rotating band is 152mm instead of 154mm for the 149/12mm gun.



  
149/12mm and 149/13mm HE (Light)


Guns used in: 149/12mm and 149/13mm Heavy Field Howitzers
Fuzing: Nose Percussion Fuze M17 or (Guerritore) I.M35, I.M38, or I.M40

Overall length (w/ fuze): 564 mm (approximate)
Overall length (w/o fuze): 533 mm
Diameter at base: 134 mm
Distance base to band: 76 mm
Width of band: 24 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: 148.6 mm

Type of filling: Probably TNT
Weight of filling: 5.45 kilograms
Weight of loaded projectile: 31.635 kilograms






149/13mm HE


Guns used in: 149/13mm Heavy Field Gun
Fuzing: Nose Percussion Fuze M17

Overall length (w/ fuze): 568 mm
Overall length (w/o fuze): 552.7 mm

Diameter at base: 147.4 mm
Distance base to band: 28 mm
Width of band: 20 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: 148.6 mm

Type of filling: MAT
Weight of filling: 5.12 kilograms
Weight of loaded projectile: 40.095 kilograms







149/13mm, 149/35 HE M32 and 149/40mm HE M35


Guns used in: 149/13mm Heavy Field Gun, 149/40mm and 149/35mm Guns
Fuzing: Nose Percussion Fuze M17

Overall length (w/ fuze): 625.3 mm
Overall length (w/o fuze): 610 mm

Diameter at base: 125 mm
Distance base to band: 82 mm
Width of band: 16 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: 148.6 mm

Type of filling: TNT
Weight of filling: 6.327 kilograms
Weight of loaded projectile: 42.675 kilograms


Remarks: The projectiles for the 149/40mm and 149/35mm guns differ from the 149/13mm projectiles in diameter of the rotating band.







149/35mm HE M32/38


Guns used in: 149/35mm Gun
Fuzing: Nose Percussion Fuze (Guerritore) I.M38 M.C.

Overall length (w/ fuze): 738 mm
Overall length (w/o fuze): 707 mm
Diameter at base: 128 mm
Distance base to band: 82 mm
Width of band: 26 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: 148.6 mm

Type of filling: MBT or MST MNDT
Weight of filling: 4.9 kilograms
Weight of loaded projectile: 45.95 kilograms







149/12mm and 149/35mm HE (Cast Steel)


Guns used in: 149/12mm Heavy Field Howitzer and 149/35mm Guns
Fuzing: Nose Percussion Fuze M17

Overall length (w/ fuze): 523.3 mm
Overall length (w/o fuze): 508 mm
Diameter at base: 154 mm
Distance base to band: 24 mm
Width of band: 25 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: 148.5 mm

Type of filling: MAT
Weight of filling: 4.75 kilograms
Weight of loaded projectile: 38.47 kilograms

Remarks: The projectile is made of cast steel.





149/13mm and 149/35mm HE (One-Piece)


Guns used in: 149/13mm and 149/35mm Guns
Fuzing: Nose Percussion Fuze M17 or M (Guerritore)

Overall length (w/ fuze): 595 mm
Overall length (w/o fuze): 580 mm
Diameter at base: 130 mm
Distance base to band: 86 mm
Width of band: 25 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: 148.5 mm

Type of filling: MBT or MNDT or MST
Weight of filling: 6.95 kg, 5.26 kg, or 5.7 kg
 Weight of loaded projectile: 37.93 kg, 36.24 kg, or 37.1 kg

Remarks: The weight of this projectile depends upon the type of filling.







149/35mm HE (British)


Guns used in: 149/35mm Gun
Fuzing: Nose Percussion Fuze M17 or M (Guerritore)

Overall length (w/ fuze): 538.2 mm
Overall length (w/o fuze): 521.2 mm

Diameter at base: 148 mm
Distance base to band: 23 mm
Width of band: 25 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: 148.5 mm

Type of filling: TNT or MST
Weight of filling: 6.61 kilograms or 4.8 kilograms
Weight of loaded projectile: 42.8 kilograms or 41.45 kilograms

Remarks: This projectile is of British manufacture and has British markings.







149/35mm ADE M32


Guns used in: 149/35mm Gun
Fuzing: Nose Fuze ADE M32

Overall length (w/ fuze): 728 mm
Overall length (w/o fuze): 614.4 mm
Diameter at base: 128 mm
Distance base to band: 62 mm
Width of band: 25 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: 148.6 mm

Type of filling: TNT
Weight of filling: 4.9 kilograms
Weight of loaded projectile: 45.9 kilograms







149/40mm ADE-HE M35


Guns used in: 149/40mm Gun
Fuzing: Nose Fuze ADE M36

Overall length (w/ fuze): 745.5 mm
Overall length (w/o fuze): 650.5 mm
Diameter at base: 129.3 mm
Distance base to band: 105 mm
Width of band: 22.8 mm
Diameter at bourrelet: 148.6 mm

Type of filling: Probably TNT
Weight of filling: 6.387 kilograms
Weight of loaded projectile: 46.2 kilograms







Next Time: Italian 152mm Projectiles