Monday, 1 June 2015

Soviet Explosive Ordnance - 7.62mm Projectiles (Part 2)



7.62mm Ammunition - x54R (Continued)


Today we'll be taking a look at the rest of the 7.62x54R cartridges that were hinted at in the previous week's update.


7.62mm Cartridge with Heavy Bullet M1930, Type D





This round may be used in all Soviet 7.62mm rifles and carbines, but it is primarily designed to be used in Soviet machine guns of this caliber because of the greater range that it gives when compared to the M1908 ball round. 

The bullet of this cartridge was adopted in 1930, has a gilding-metal-clad steel jacket and a lead core, and is boat-tailed.  It is longer and heavier than the M1908 light bullet, and these features, together with a heavier powder charge, insure greater range.

The cartridge cases are constructed of either brass or steel, but steel cases seem to be more commonly used.  This cartridge is identified by the yellow-tipped bullet.



Characteristics
Caliber: 7.62mm (Cal. .30)
Weight of cartridge: 25.9g (400 gr) [Approximate]
Weight of case (Brass): 9.5g (147 gr)
Weight of case (Steel): 8.7g (134 gr)
Weight of bullet: 11.9g (185 gr)
Weight of propellant: 3.25g (50 gr)
Length of cartridge: 76.8mm (3.02 in)
Length of case: 53.7mm (2.11 in)
Length of bullet: 33.4mm (1.30 in)


Packaging





These 7.62mm rifle and machine gun cartridges are packed in 5-round clips, 3 clips to a paper package, 20 paper packages to a metal container, and 2 metal containers (a total of 600 cartridges) to a wooden box; or 20 cartridges to a paper package tied with a string, 22 such packages to a metal container, and 2 metal containers (a total of 880 cartridges) to each wooden box.

In either type of packaging, the Russian letter Д (D) will immediately follow the caliber size, and a yellow stripe will appear on both the metal container and the wooden box.  Wooden boxes with ammunition in clips will bear, in addition to the information shown in the above illustrations, the Russian term B ОБОЙМАХ (in clips)



7.62mm Cartridge with Incendiary Ranging Bullet, Type ZP





This round may be used in all Soviet 7.62mm machine guns, rifles ,and carbinesThe bullet of this cartridge was adopted in 1930, has a gilding-metal-clad steel jacket.  The nose section of the jacket is filled with a special incendiary mixture which is ignited by a high-explosive primer.  The latter is initiated by an inertia-operated striker.

The red-tipped bullet is the identifying feature of this cartridge.  The role of this round is to ignite unarmored fuel tanks of aircraft and vehicles.  In addition, the round is used in fire adjustment.  In very dry weather, the bullets will set fire to grass.  A bullet of this type, hitting personnel, has the same effect as an explosive bullet.

This bullet is not boresafe and is subject to muzzle bursts.



Characteristics
Caliber: 7.62mm (Cal. .30)
Weight of cartridge: 24.4g (377 gr) [Approximate]
Weight of case (Brass): 9.5g (147 gr)
Weight of case (Steel): 8.7g (134 gr)
Weight of bullet: 10.38g (160 gr)
Weight of propellant: 3.25g (50 gr)
Length of cartridge: 76.8mm (3.02 in)
Length of case: 53.7mm (2.11 in)
Length of bullet: 38.2mm (1.50 in)


Packaging




The galvanized metal container and wooden packaging illustrated above are identical to the packaging for other Soviet 7.62mm rifle and MG cartridges.

Both metal and wood box are marked with the cyrillic symbol ПЗ (PZ) immediately following the caliber size, and also with a red stripe, to identify this incendiary ranging cartridge.



7.62mm Cartridge with Armor-Piercing Bullet M1930, Type B-30





This armor-piercing cartridge is commonly used in all Soviet 7.62mm ground machine guns, rifles, and carbines for firing upon targets protected by light armor. such as armored cars and airplanes.  The bullet is effective against armor up to 10mm (0.39 in) thick, at a distance not greater than 800 meters (880 yards).

The bullet consists of a tempered steel core, surrounded by a lead envelope and a steel jacket clad with gilding metal.  The trajectory of this bullet and the tracer bullet M1930 coincide up to about 1,400 meters (1,540 yards).

This cartridge is identified by the black-tipped bullet.



Characteristics
Caliber: 7.62mm (Cal. .30)
Weight of cartridge: 25.2g (390 gr) [Approximate]
Weight of case (Brass): 9.5g (147 gr)
Weight of case (Steel): 8.7g (134 gr)
Weight of bullet: 11.9g (185 gr)
Weight of propellant: 3.25g (50 gr)
Length of cartridge: 76.8mm (3.02 in)
Length of case: 53.7mm (2.11 in)
Length of bullet: 33.4mm (1.30 in)


Packaging





This cartridge, like many of the other small-arms rounds, is wrapped in paper packages of 20.  Twenty-two such packages (a total of 440 cartridges) are placed in a galvanized-metal container.  Two of these hermetically sealed metal containers are packed in a wooden box, making a total of 880 cartridges.

The Russian marking Б-30 (B-30) immediately following the caliber size on both the metal container and the wooden box, and the presence of a black stripe on the top of the metal container and the side of the wooden box, identify this cartridge.


7.62mm Cartridge with Armor-Piercing Tracer Bullet






This cartridge is more commonly used in the 7.62mm Soviet ground machine guns than in rifles.  The bullet has a gilding-metal-clad steel jacket.
The role of this cartridge is to combat light armor and, at the same time, to serve as a tracer.  The purple-tipper bullet is the identifying feature of this round.



Characteristics
Caliber: 7.62mm (Cal. .30)
Weight of cartridge: 23.2g (358 gr) [Approximate]
Weight of case (Brass): 9.5g (147 gr)
Weight of case (Steel): 8.7g (134 gr)
Weight of bullet: 10.2g (157 gr)
Weight of propellant: 3.2g (49.4 gr)
Length of cartridge: 76.5mm (3.01 in)
Length of case: 53.7mm (2.11 in)
Length of bullet: 39.8mm (1.58 in)


Packaging

No illustration available



It is believed that packing boxes for this cartridge are identical to those for other Soviet 7.62mm machine gun cartridges, and that the rounds are probably wrapped in paper and packed 880 cartridges to each wooden box.

Exact markings are not available; however, it is believed that the general form of packing box markings will be the same as on other Soviet machine gun cartridge boxes.


7.62mm Cartridge with Armor-Piercing Incendiary Bullet M1940 (with Special Core),          Type BS-40






This cartridge is believed to be for use in shoulder weapons only.  The incendiary composition is placed in the nose of the gilding-metal-clad steel jacket, forward of the core.  The core is constructed of tungsten carbide to accomplish greater penetration.
The red-colored bullet with black tip and the black base of the cartridge case are the identifying features of this cartridge.
The bullet is able to penetrate thicker armor than the armor-piercing bullet M1932 or the armor-piercing incendiary bullet, Type BZT.  It is used to engage lightly armored targets and to ignite flammable material.



Characteristics
Caliber: 7.62mm (Cal. .30)
Weight of cartridge: 24.95g (385 gr) [Approximate]
Weight of case (Brass): 9.5g (147 gr)
Weight of case (Steel): 8.7g (134 gr)
Weight of bullet: 12.1g (187 gr)
Weight of propellant: 3.2g (49 gr)
Length of cartridge: 76.8mm (3.02 in)
Length of case: 53.7mm (2.11 in)
Length of bullet: 30.5mm (1.20 in)


Packaging





It is believed that packing boxes for this cartridge are identical to those for other Soviet 7.62mm machine gun cartridges, and that the rounds are probably wrapped in paper and packed 880 cartridges to each wooden box.

The packaging for this cartridge is identified by the Russian symbol БС-40 (BS-40), immediately following the caliber size.  The two broken, black concentric circles stenciled on both metal and wooden box, the black-painted ends of the wooden box, and the black edges of the ends of the cover signify that this cartridge contains a tungsten carbide-cored bullet.



7.62mm Cartridge with Armor-Piercing Incendiary Bullet M1932, Type B-32






This cartridge is used in all Soviet 7.62mm machine guns, and may also be used in rifles.  The bullet is identical in appearance to the armor-piercing bullet, Type B-30.  Its gilding-metal-clad steel jacket encloses the lead-encased steel core.  The incendiary composition is placed forward of the core in the nose.  When the jacket is flattened upon striking armor, the incendiary compound is ignited.

The role of this round is to pierce lightly armored vehicles and aircraft, and to ignite inflammable material.

The identifying feature of this cartridge is the black-and-red-tipped bullet.



Characteristics
Caliber: 7.62mm (Cal. .30)
Weight of cartridge: 24g (370 gr) [Approximate]
Weight of case (Brass): 9.5g (147 gr)
Weight of case (Steel): 8.7g (134 gr)
Weight of bullet: 10.08g (155 gr)
Weight of propellant: 3.2g (49 gr)
Length of cartridge: 76.8mm (3.02 in)
Length of case: 53.7mm (2.11 in)
Length of bullet: 37mm (1.48 in)


Packaging




This cartridge is wrapped in paper packages of 20, and tied with a string or tape.  Twenty-two of these packages are packed in a galvanized-metal container, making a total of 440 cartridges.  Two of these hermetically sealed metal containers are packed in a wooden box, making a total of 880 cartridges per box.

Markings illustrated, are placed on both the metal and the wooden box.  The Russian symbol Б-32 (B-32) immediately following the caliber size, and the black and red stripe on both the metal container and the side of the wooden box, identify the packaging for this cartridge.



7.62mm Cartridge with Armor-Piercing Incendiary Tracer Bullet, Type BZT






The 7.62mm BZT round is used in all the Soviet machine guns of this caliber, and may be used in rifles.  The bullet has a gilding-metal-clad steel jacket, a steel armor-piercing core, an incendiary composition in the nose section, and a tracer element in the base.  A small amount of incendiary composition is pressed over the tracer, as is also the case with the tracer bullet M1930.

This round is used against lightly armored targets and is intended to ignite inflammable material behind the armor.  It also serves as a tracer bullet.

It is identified by the purple tip and the red band on the bullet.



Characteristics
Caliber: 7.62mm (Cal. .30)
Weight of cartridge: 25.25g (390 gr) [Approximate]
Weight of case (Brass): 9.5g (147 gr)
Weight of case (Steel): 8.7g (134 gr)
Weight of bullet: 9.2g (142 gr)
Weight of propellant: 3.25g (49 gr)
Length of cartridge: 76.8mm (3.02 in)
Length of case: 53.7mm (2.11 in)
Length of bullet: 40.2mm (1.58 in)


Packaging





This cartridge is packed in the same manner as other Soviet 7.62mm machine gun cartridges.  The metal containers are packed with 440 cartridges and are hermetically sealed.  The wooden box, as shown in the above illustration, has two such metal containers, containing 880 rounds.

The Russian symbol БЗТ (BZT) immediately following the caliber size, and the purple and red stripes on both metal and wooden box, identify the packaging for this cartridge.



7.62mm Cartridge with Tracer Bullet M1930, Type T





This round is employed in all 7.62mm ground machine guns, rifles, and carbines.

The gilding-metal-clad steel-jacketed bullet has a lead-antimony core to give it sufficient weight.  A tracer element is in the base.  To the rear of the tracer element is a thin layer of incendiary composition.  The incendiary composition performs two functions: It ignited the tracer element, and it prevents daylight detection of the trace until the bullet is a certain distance from the muzzle.  At night, however, the burning of the incendiary composition is visible.  The tracer element burns out at about 2,000 meters (2,200 yards).

The case, primer, and type of powder are the same as for other Soviet 7.62mm machine gun and rifle cartridges.

The basic function of this cartridge is to facilitate adjustment for azimuth and for range upon moving targets.  The trajectory of this cartridge coincides with that of the light bullet M1908 up to a distance of about 1,000 meters (1,100 yards); with that of the heavy bullet M1930 up to about 1,200 meters (1,320 yards); and with that of the armor-piercing bullet M1930 up to about 1,400 meters (1,540 yards).

The round is identified by the green-tipped bullet.  A later 7.62mm tracer round, the T-46 (1946), is known to exist, but no details are available.



Characteristics
Caliber: 7.62mm (Cal. .30)
Weight of cartridge: 23.6g (366 gr) [Approximate]
Weight of case (Brass): 9.5g (147 gr)
Weight of case (Steel): 8.7g (134 gr)
Weight of bullet: 9.6g (148 gr)
Weight of propellant: 3.25g (50 gr)
Length of cartridge: 76.8mm (3.02 in)
Length of case: 53.7mm (2.11 in)
Length of bullet: 37.6mm (1.48 in)


Packaging




These tracer cartridges are usually wrapped in paper packages of 20 and tied with a string or tape.  Twenty-two such packages are placed in a galvanized metal container, making a total of 440 cartridges.  The metal container is hermetically sealed and is marked with a green stripe in addition to the other necessary cartridge information.

Two such containers are placed in a wooden box making a total of 880 cartridges.  This wooden box is also marked with a green stripe, in addition to the cartridge information.

The Russian letter T (T) following the caliber size, and the green stripe, identify the packaging for this cartridge.



7.62mm Silencer Cartridge





It is reported that, in World War II, Soviet Army snipers fired this round from the 7.62mm rifle M1891/30 equipped with a special silencer attached to the muzzle.

Very little is known about this cartridge.  It is believed that a reduced propelling charge and component of the 7.62mm cartridge with light bullet M1908, Type L, were used in the manufacture of the cartridge, to reduce the muzzle velocity below that of sound.

Prior to 1941 the bullet, case mouth, and base of the case were painted green.  Since 1941, only the bullet tip and primer are painted green.



Characteristics
Caliber: 7.62mm (Cal. .30)
Weight of cartridge: 19.55g (302 gr) [Approximate]
Weight of case (Brass): 9.5g (147 gr)
Weight of case (Steel): 8.7g (134 gr)
Weight of bullet: 9.5g (147 gr)
Weight of propellant: 0.5g (8 gr)
Length of cartridge: 76.8mm (3.02 in)
Length of case: 53.7mm (2.11 in)
Length of bullet: 28.6mm (1.12 in)


Packaging

No illustration available



There is no available information on the packaging of these cartridges.





Next Time: 12.7mm Cartridges

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