Monday, 2 May 2016

Imperial Japanese Navy Explosives - Bombs (Part 8)

Imperial Japanese Navy Explosives

Type 0 Model 1, Type 0 Model 2, and Cardboard Type Sea Markers

Fuzes: None
Type 0 Model 1
Overall Length: 12 and 1/2 inches
Length of body: 7 and 1/2 inches
Diameter of body: 3 inches
Thickness of wall: 1/64 inches
Material of wall: Sheet Steel

Cardboard type
Overall Length: 12 and 1/2 inches
Length of body: 7 and 1/2 inches
Diameter of body: 3 inches
Thickness of wall: 1/16 inches
Material of wall: Cardboard
Type of suspension: Dropped by hand
Suspension lug: None

Type 0 Model 1
Length of tail: 5 inches
Width of tail: 4 and 1/4 inches
Width of tail fins: 1 and 7/8 inches
Dimensions of tail struts: None
 Material of tail: Light tin

Cardboard type
Length of tail: 5 inches
Width of tail: 3 inches
Width of tail fins: 1 and 1/4 inches
Dimensions of tail struts: None
Material of tail: Cardboard
Type of filling: Aluminum powder, containing 6.5% zinc.  1 ounce covers 118 square feet.
No explosive

Type 0 Model 1
Weight of filling: 0.7 pound
Total weight of bomb: 3.5 pounds
Charge/weight ratio: 20%

Cardboard type
Weight of filling: 1 pound
Total weight of bomb: 3.5 pounds
Charge/weight ratio: 20%
Color and markings: Aluminum color.  Japanese inscription printer on a paper label which is glued to the body of the marker. (Instructions for operation of marker.)
Construction of body:
-Type 0: A sheet steel cylindrical body is fastened to the steel nosepiece by four punch marks.  The tail cone and body are joined by a thin disk of light wood secured by four tacks in each component.

-Cardboard type: A hollow-steel nosepiece is secured to a paper body by a strip of adhesive tape.  The body is reinforced by cardboard strips.  A cardboard tail cone is fastened to the body by adhesive tape.  Four cardboard fins are glued to the tail cone.

Situated in the hollow section of the steel nosepiece is a wooden cylinder 1 and 7/16 inches in diameter.  Fastened to this cylinder is a small wooden disk the same diameter as the inside of the body.  Located between this nose disk and the wooden disk in the tail is a connecting wooden pin 4 and 3/4 inches long.

-Type 0: On impact with the water, the plug in the nose is forced up into the body, forcing the tail portion to be freed from the body, thereby scattering the aluminum powder.

-Cardboard type: On impact with water the container breaks up and releases the aluminum powder.

Remarks: Type 0 Model 2 is similar in construction to Model 1.  It is painted yellow overall and contains a filling of dark green powder which produces a green slick on the water.

Type 3 No.6 Target Marker Bomb
Fuzes: A-1 or A-3 series
Overall Length: 42 and 1/4 inches
Length of body: 21 inches
Diameter of body: 9 and 1/2 inches
Thickness of wall: 1/8 inches
Material of wall: Steel
Type of suspension: Horizontal
Suspension lug: Normal Navy suspension lug

Length of tail: 21 and 1/4 inches
Width of tail: 13 and 1/4 inches
Width of tail fins: 6 inches
Dimensions of tail struts:
-Length: 9 and 1/4 inches
-Width: 1 and 1/2 inches
-Thickness: 1/16 inch
Material of tail: Steel
Type of filling: The filling consists of 152 phosphorus-filled steel pellets contained in three cylindrical steel canisters.  Each canister is filled with pellets and the space not occupied by the pellets is filled with white phosphorus.  The canisters are covered with a heavy wax coating.  There is a charge of Type 98 explosive in the nosepiece of the bomb.
Weight of canisters:
-Canister One: 68 pellets - 56 pounds
-Canister Two: 56 pellets - 37.5 pounds
-Canister Three: 28 pellets - 13 pounds
Dimensions of canisters (Length x Diameter):
-Canister One: 7 inches by 8 and 1/4 inches
-Canister Two: 5 and 3/4 inches x 8 and 1/4 inches
-Canister Three: 3 inches x 8 and 1/4 inches

Dimensions of pellets:
-Length: 2 and 1/2 inches
-Diameter: 1 and 1/2 inches

Weight of filling: 107 pounds
Total weight of bomb: 155 pounds
Charge/weight ratio: 69%
Color and markings: The bomb is grey overall with a red band on the nose and red tail struts.  Four longitudinal grooves are painted red.
Construction of body: A cast-steel nosepiece is attached to a longitudinally welded steel body by a continuous weld.  The nosepiece contains a gaine well surrounded by an explosive charge which in turn is surrounded by a wooden filler plug.  The body has 4 external longitudinal grooves 90 degrees removed from each other.  The tail cone is welded to a collar which fits into the body and is held there by a single row of 16 screws.
Construction of tail: The tail cone is constructed of 1/8-inch steel and is welded longitudinally.  Four steel fins are welded to the cone and are braced by a single set of box-type struts.

Type 2 2kg Target Indicator

Fuzes: None
Overall Length: 17 inches
Length of body: 11 and 3/16 inches
Diameter of body: 3 inches
Thickness of wall: 3/16 inches
Material of wall: Bakelite
Type of suspension: Horizontal
Suspension lug: A steel suspension ring is attached to a steel band by a soldered tin strip.  The steel band fits tightly around the bomb body.

Length of tail: 4 and 7/8 inches
Width of tail: 5 inches
Width of tail fins: 1 and 9/16 inches
Dimensions of tail struts:
-Length: 3 and 1/8 inches
-Width: 7/16 inch
Material of tail: Sheet Tin
Type of filling: F.M. (titanium tetrachloride)
Weight of filling: 1 pound, 7 and 3/4 ounces
Total weight of bomb: 3 pounds, 14 ounces
Charge/weight ratio: 37%
Color and markings: Black body and tail.  No other color or markings present.
Construction of body: The bomb body is of molded bakelite construction with an opening in the after end only.  This opening is threaded to receive a bakelite stopper, the union being sealed by a black rubber washer.  The stopper is threaded internally to receive a bakelite tube which extends nearly the complete length of the bomb body.  The after end of the stopper is a slightly tapered tube and a rubber tube is cemented over it.

Cemented into the after end of the rubber tube is a glass tube through which the bomb is filled.  When the bomb is approximately two-thirds filled with liquid F.M. the glass tube is heated and sealed off.  A small wire is attached to the glass tube at the point of sealing.  Each of the cemented unions is reinforced with a wire wrapping.

A ballistic cap is glued to the nose of the bomb.  The cap is made of heavy paper and is filled with fine iron fillings to make the bomb nose heavy.

Construction of tail: The tail fins are made of sheet tin.  Pairs of adjacent fins are stamped from the same piece of metal and soldered to the forward end after circular struts.  The edges of the fins are strengthened by having a one-eight-inch turn-back.  The after circular strut (width: 1 inch; diameter: 1 and 7/8 inches) is similarly strengthened.

The forward circular strut (width: 9/16 inch; diameter: 1 and 1/16 inches) is of lighter gage tin and is secured to the fins by soldering except for one free end which is secured by a bolt and nut after the fins are assembled to the bomb.  To insure positive seating of the fins, a rubber insert extends half-way around the inside of the forward circular strut.  A single set of box-type struts (length: 3 and 1/8 inches; width: 7/16 inch) is located at the after extremities of the fins.

Operation: The bomb is released from the plane and the case fractures on contact with the target.  The smoke mixture is dispersed.

2kg Window Bomb

Fuzes: Pull igniter
Overall Length: 37 inches
Length of body: 37 inches
Diameter of body: 1 and 3/4 inches
Thickness of wall: 1/32 inches
Material of wall: Sheet Steel
Type of suspension: None, hand thrown
Suspension lug: None

Length: 12 inches
Width of tail: 2 and 7/8 inches
Width of tail fins: 9/16 inches
Dimensions of tail struts:
-Length: 2 inches
-Width: 3/8 inch
-Thickness: 1/32 inch
Material of tail: Sheet Steel

Type of filling: 250 paper strips, cylinder containing iron pyrite
Weight of filling:
-Paper strips: 10 ounces
-Iron pyrite and cylinder: 20 ounces
Total weight of bomb: 4 pounds, 7 ounces
Color and markings: Grey overall.  Two yellow labels.  One gives instructions for use, the other the following: "Silver paper scattering bomb, manufactured October 1944, Navy Air Force Arsenal"
Description:  Bomb consist of a nosepiece, body, and end cap.  Nosepiece is made of wood and has a hole in the center to accommodate the string attached to the pull igniter. End of nosepiece is sealed with a paper disk which is removed when the bomb is to be used.  Nosepiece is secured to the body by six nails.  Body is of light sheet metal construction, soldered longitudinally.  After end is closed by an end cap of similar metal and held in place by a sealing tape.

Filling of the bomb case consists of 250 metal coated paper strips and an inner cylinder which contains the delay element and ejection charge.  Inner cylinder is in the front end of the case.  It is of light sheet metal construction and soldered longitudinally.  A metal disk closes the nose end and another metal disk is soldered in place 1 and 5/8 inches from the tail end.  Space between the two disks is filled with iron pyrite to make the bomb nose heavy. 

Each disk has a 1/2-inch hole in the center through which a metal tube is inserted.  This houses a standard type pull igniter such as is used in the 5 kilogram parachute flare.  An 11 inch length of safety fuse is crimped into the after end of the igniter is led to an annular bag containing smokeless powder.

The 250 paper strips are just after of the inner cylinder.  Two L-shaped metal strips placed back to back hold 125 strips each.  Four heavy cardboard strips surround the paper strips to insure their smooth ejection.  The paper strips are covered on one side only by a metal foil.

Operation: The cotton tab on the nose is pulled, exposing the pull igniter cord.  This cord is pulled and the striker hits a flash cap which ignites the safety fuse.  The bomb is thrown from the plane.  The safety fuse burns for 40 seconds and sets off the smokeless powder which ejects the paper strips.

"Baka" Piloted Rocket Bomb

Bomb Data
Overall length: 19 feet, 10 inches
Wingspread: 16 feet, 5 inches

Description: The "Baka" bomb is a suicide weapon designed to be controlled by a human pilot.  It is carried beneath the fuselage of a bomber and released near its target.  Three rocket motors provide propulsion after release from the mother plane.  The entire explosive content of the Baka bomb is contained in the warhead in the nose.

Warhead Data
Fuzes: A-3(g), B-9(a), B-10(a), two of each.
Overall Length: 68 and 1/2 inches
Diameter: 23 and 1/2 inches
Thickness of wall: 1 and 1/4 inches
Material of wall: Steel

Suspension: The warhead is secured to the fuselage of the "Baka" bomb by four brackets welded to the base plate.
Type of filling: Trinitroanisol

Weight of filling: 1,135 pounds

Total weight of warhead: 2,645 pounds
Color and markings:  Grey overall.  Green band around nose, a brown band adjacent to it.
Description: The warhead is of one-piece machined steel construction.  It has parallel sides and an ogival nose.  The nose fuze pocket is 8 and 1/2 inches deep.  The after end of the warhead is closed by a base plate.  Four tail fuze pockets are grouped around a central threaded hole in a slightly raised portion of the base plate.  The center hole accommodates an arming device which the pilot operates to arm the four tail fuzes simultaneously.

Type 3 and Model 10 Bomb Launching Devices

Type 3
Overall Length: 40 and 1/2 inches
Maximum Diameter: 7 and 7/8 inches

Model 10
Overall Length: 33 inches
Maximum Diameter: 7 and 7/8 inches

Description: Both motors are designed as propulsion units for 60-kilogram ordinary or land-use bombs.  The motors are used to propel these bombs from crude V-shaped wooden troughs for land bombardment.  The motors are interchangeable and may be used on either the 60kg ordinary or land-use bomb.

Type 3
Weight of complete round: 92 pounds
Weight of propellant: 25 pounds
Length of propellant stick: 18 and 1/8 inches
Depth of propellant stick: 3 and 5/16 inches
Weight of ignition charge: 2 ounces

Model 10
Weight of complete round: 52 pounds
Weight of propellant: 13 pounds
Length of propellant stick: 10 and 1/4 inches
Depth of propellant stick: 3 and 5/16 inches
Weight of ignition charge: 2 ounces

Propellant: The propellant charge consists of three sticks of 343 D.T.2 and 343 special D.T.2 (code designation) for the Model 10 and Type 3, respectively.  The chemical analysis of 343 D.T.2 is 65% nitrocellulose, 30% nitroglycerine, 3% ethyl centralite, and 2% sodium chloride.  The chemical analysis of 343 special D.T.2 is not known but probably involves a small variation of 343 D.T.2.  The complete Japanese designation for 343 D.T.2 is Type 93 Mk 2 propellant.

Ignition: The propellant is ignited by an electrical squib.  Current is supplied by a hand generator.

Launcher: A crude V-shaped wooden trough mounted on a bipod forward and a steel base plate aft.  The angle of elevation can be varied.

Remarks: The variation in the size of the two motors is possible a means of varying the range.

Next Time: Imperial Japanese Land Mines

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