HS 293 A-1
Length Overall: 381.9 centimeters
Span of Wing: 310 centimeters
Span of Horizontal Stabilizer: 113.6 centimeters
Span of Vertical Stabilizer: 98 centimeters
Diameter of Fuselage: 47 centimeters
Diameter of Power Unit: 33 centimeters
Height Overall: 109 centimeters (approx.)
Average Chord: 79.3 centimeters (approx.)
Wing Area (Total): 2.4 square meters
Wing Loading (Launch): 441 kilograms per square meter
Wing Loading (Target): 390 kilograms per square meter
Weight of Warhead: 500 kilograms
Weight at Launching: 1045 kilograms
Weight at Target: 967 kilograms
Weight of Fuel: 78 kilograms
Maximum Velocity: 260 meters per second
Average Velocity: 230 meters per second
Maximum Range at:
2.2km Altitude: 4 kilometers
4.0km Altitude: 5.5 kilometers
5.0km Altitude: 8.5 kilometers
Radius of Turn: 800 meters
Designed "G": 3.0 g.
Description: The Hs 293 A-1 has principally an aluminum, stressed skin, spot welded structure. The forward portion of the fuselage is structurally the bomb casing with an aluminum covering or fairing. Fastened to the rear of the bomb is a vertical plastic beam (about 3/8 inch thick) which runs to, and is fastened to, the after portion of the fuselage. The radio and the associated gear for the controlling of the bomb are mounted on either side of this plastic beam. On the after corner of this beam is mounted a roller. The after portion of the fuselage is a stressed-skin, semimonoque structure with a rail (for the aforementioned roller on the plastic beam) mounted on the top inside of the structure. Quick disconnection fasteners are mounted at the connection between the rear of the bomb fairing and the forward end of the rear fuselage to be quickly detached and rolled off the bomb and plastic beam, giving quick and complete access to all of the control gear. The wing and tail are aluminum and of the usual built-up type.
Aerodynamic Characteristics: The missile is controlled in roll by the normal type of ailerons on the trailing edge of the outer portion of the wing. The ailerons also control the yaw effect. It is controlled in pitch by the normal type of control surfaces on the trailing edge of the horizontal tail surface.
Control System: The control system consists of the following parts:
A. Receiving set E-230. This unit could use any of the 18 channels, each of which were 100 kc apart in the band between 48 and 49.7 mc/s and could be changed easily in the field to satisfy the operation requirements for frequencies.
B. "Aufschaltgerate" for damping and smoothing the receiver signals.
C. Three-phase AC gyro for stabilization in roll and yaw. It has a precession rate of 2 degrees per minute.
D. High resistance double potentiometer for proportioning the data.
E. 210-volt D.C. generator for the receiver.
F. A transformer with built-in relays to activate the aileron surface magnets.
G. Elevator mechanism with an "Oemiz" motor and potentiometer for returning the elevator to its normal position.
H. An iron nickel plate battery of 24 volts with approximately 14 amp/hours.
This missile, because of the type of intelligence used, is limited to use in good, clear weather and with air superiority. It is subject to jamming, and this, therefore, may limit use to targets where jamming equipment is not installed.
A joystick type of control was used in the parent aircraft. This control box made use of a very clever cam arrangement which gave proportional control.
Warhead: The warhead was constructed in one section of drawn steel. The base plate was welded in position. The nose filling plug was threaded and held in place by two set screws. A kopfring was welded to the nose just behind the nose plug. One transverse fuze pocket was located aft of the suspension lug. A central exploder tube used in the explosive cavity to insure high order detonation of the warhead on impact with the target.
Upon locating the target, the carrier aircraft makes its approach to the trajectory distance, and in the last of its dive, sets a course such that the target can be seen 30 to 60 degrees to the right of the course. Shortly before release time and particularly at the moment of release,t he carrier aircraft must be in a horizontal position. At the time of release the aircraft must have a minimum speed of 334 km/hr if the He-111 is used, and 400 km/hr if the He-177 or the Do-217 are used.
The missile is released and directed to the target by the bombardier. Immediately after release, the speed of the aircraft may be reduced, but the release altitude and direction should be maintained for a period of approximately 10 seconds. After this interval of time, it is no essential to maintain release altitude and course direction. It is important that any change in flight be done slowly and carefully so that the target remains on the side of the bombardier during the entire flying time of the missile. The field of view of the operator and the freedom of the carrier plane in approach may vary according to the type of aircraft. In all carrier planes, there should be a field of view of approximately 110 degrees to the right. The flying time of the Hs 293 A-1 should not be greater than approximately 100 seconds.
The Hs 293 is the outgrowth of the "Gustav Schwartz Propellerwerke" glide bomb which was first designed in 1939. The further development of this glide bomb by Henschel represents their first attempt at a radio controlled missile.
The original Schwartz design was a pure glide bomb guided on a straight course by means of an automatic pilot. The method of attack entailed high altitudes for the carrier aircraft in order that sufficient range could be attained and still be out of anti-aircraft fire.
Henschell took over the work of further developing this missile in early 1940, and it was decided to use some form of propulsion for the missile so that attacks at low altitude and increased range could be made. The Hs 293 A-1 was the first model to be used operationally with the new motor.
In as much as all future models under development were very similar to the Hs 293 A-1, it will be the only missile of this series discussed in detail. The following is a list of projects which emerged from the original Hs 293 A-1:
Hs 293 B: This was a wire-controlled version of the original radio-controlled series, designed to be used in the event of a jamming of the radio control mechanism of the original series of bombs. The G.A.F. considered that up to 70 percent disturbance was permissible before a change-over to the wire-controlled series would be necessary. Since these conditions were never attained, the Hs 293 B was never put into use.
Hs 293 C: This missile was a modified version of the Hs 294 and had a detachable warhead, etc., in the same manner as the Hs 294, but a conventionally shaped body. The fuzes included an impact fuze with a short delay to allow for penetration in cases where the missile struck a ship above its waterline, an impact fuze which detonated immediately on impact after it had entered the water, and a fuze operated by a spinner which detonated the missile after a passage of 45 meters through the water.
This subtype was designated the Hs 293 C during its development stage, but when large scale production was to start, it was changed to the Hs 293 A-2, and was to replace the original radio-controlled series for general purpose use against shipping targets.
Hs 293 D: This was a projected type of missile to be fitted with a television camera in the nose. The camera was designed to repeat data back to the missile controller. The camera was designed to swing vertically and was aimed in the line of flight by a small wind vane on the outside of the projectile. As the projectile was rudderless, and in theory should not yaw in flight, there was no need to allow for any traverse in the camera mounting. About 20 of these missiles were built and test flown, but the television gear proved unreliable, and the project was abandoned.
Hs 293 E: This was purely an experimental model built to try out a system of spoiler controls to replace the conventional aileron mechanism. These controls were incorporated in the final model of the Hs 293 A-2, but were never employed operationally, since by the time the bomb was brought into large scale production, the G.A.F. had no aircraft left for anti-shipping purposes.
Hs 293 F: This was a tailless missile which was never developed beyond the design stage.
Hs 293 H: This missile was intended to be released and controlled in flight by one aircraft and detonated by a second observing aircraft, which would be flying in position where it would be easy to observe the impact of the missile against the target. The project was abandoned because it was felt that the detonating aircraft would be unable to remain directly over the target long enough to carry out its function.
Hs 293 V6: This subtype was developed for launching from jet-propelled aircraft at launching speeds up to 200 meters/second. This involved modification of the wing span of the missile so that it could be carried within the undercarriage of the aircraft. The Ar 234 aircraft was to be used as the parent plant, and since it was not yet available at the conclusion of the war in Europe, the missile never progressed beyond the design stage.
Next Time: Rockets (Part 4)
Source: German Explosive Ordnance Vol. 1: Bombs, Rockets, Grenades, Mines, Fuzes & Igniters